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《Science》2016年天文学文章索引(12 月 23 日更新)  

2016-01-14 14:47:51|  分类: 文献索引 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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综论

In Depth: NSF director unveils big ideas, 352: 6287, 755-756, 13 May 2016

Books et al.: Philosophy for physicists, 352: 6288, 903, 20 May 2016

Books et al.: Welcome to the Universe, 353: 6304, 1088-1093, 9 September 2016

太阳

This Week in Science: Simulating turbulent solar magnetic fields, 351: 6280, 1411, 25 March 2016

Reports: Large-scale magnetic fields at high Reynolds numbers in magnetohydrodynamic simulations, 351: 6280, 1427-1430, 25 March 2016

地球

This Week in Science: Sensitive ice sheets, 352: 6281, 48, 1 April 2016

In Depth: El Nino's warmth devastating reefs worldwide, 352: 6281, 15-16, 1 April 2016Perspectives: How Antarctica got its ice, 352: 6281, 34-35, 1 April 2016

Reports: Antarctic Ice Sheet variability across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate transition, 352: 6281, 76-80, 1 April 2016

This Week in Science: Iron isotopes constrain core chemistry, 352: 6285, 546, 29 April 2016

Reports: Pressure-dependent isotopic composition of iron alloys, 352: 6285, 580-582, 29 April 2016

In Brief: New Sentinel satellite snaps first images, 352: 6286, 632-634, 6 May 2016

Perspectives: Identifying remnants of early Earth, 352: 6287, 768-769, 13 May 2016

This Week in Science: Isotopes isolated after impact, 352: 6287, 783, 13 May 2016

Reports: Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts, 352: 6287, 809-812, 13 May 2016

In Brief: Atmospheric CO2 reaches a milestone, 352: 6288, 874-875, 20 May 2016

Books et al.: Death on Earth, 352: 6290, 1166-1171, 3 June 2016

In Depth: CFC bans pay off as Antarctic ozone layer starts to mend, 353: 6294, 16-17, 1 July 2016  南极臭氧层破洞开始“愈合”? 据新的研究报道,在持续了几十年后,南极上方臭氧层空破洞已经开始“愈合”,表明臭氧在增加。这些结果表明,在近30年前签定的一个历史性协议正带来正面的回报,这不仅表明地球第二个主要的大气层(同温层)中臭氧耗损的速度减缓,而且还表明可识别的臭氧增加正在形成之中。1989年生效的《关于损耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书》是一项国际协议,旨在通过逐步淘汰众多导致臭氧耗竭物质的生产来保护臭氧层。了解臭氧因应这一协议和相关努力所带来的愈合程度仍然存在着广泛的公众、政策和科学方面的兴趣。尽管到目前为止的分析显示了自协议签订以来同温层臭氧恢复的某些早期迹象,但这些征象大体上表现为臭氧衰减速度降低及臭氧耗竭趋于平缓;有关臭氧在极地一带有所增加的记录则一直较少。更重要的是,在201510月,南极的臭氧洞达到了创纪录的水平,从而给出了一个自相矛盾的结果。为了进一步检查自2000年来因应控制耗竭臭氧物质和其他变量以来极地臭氧的变化趋势,Susan Solomon和同事在此将臭氧的直接检测和模型计算相结合。他们发现了南极臭氧层“愈合”的数个一致性的信号,尤其是在9月份,当时他们发现了臭氧柱量的定期、季节性增加。研究人员还评估了由自然因素(这些因素包括火山爆发)造成的臭氧健康的变化;他们说,自从约2005年以来,这些火山爆发延迟了臭氧洞的愈合,并大幅促成了近年来臭氧丧失的年际变异。

Special Issue: Natural Hazards

Introduction to special issue: Nature's Fury, 353: 6296, 230-231, 15 July 2016

News: Thinking the unthinkable, 353: 6296, 232-237, 15 July 2016

News: Doomsday Machines, 353: 6296, 238-241, 15 July 2016

Review: Human influence on tropical cyclone intensity, 353: 6296, 242-246, 15 July 2016

Review: Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping, 353: 6296, 247-252, 15 July 2016

Review: Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes, 353: 6296, 253-257, 15 July 2016

In Brief: World’s deepest blue hole, 353: 6298, 428-431, 29 July 2016

In Brief: Mediterranean’s ancient sea floor, 353: 6301, 732-734, 19 August 2016

Perspectives: Effects of a warming Arctic, 353: 6303, 989-990, 2 September 2016

This Week in Science: Warm Arctic—cold continents? 353: 6303, 1000, 2 September 2016

This Week in Science: Catching earthquakes from the sky, 353: 6306, 1377, 23 September 2016

In Brief: First private weather satellites, 353: 6306, 1344-1346, 23 September 2016

In Depth: The Subduction Zone Observatory takes shape, 353: 6306, 1347-1348, 23 September 2016

In Brief: A view of the Arctic in high relief, 353: 6307, 1474-1476, 30 September 2016

Perspectives: Constraining lithospheric flow, 353: 6307, 1495-1496, 30 September 2016

This Week in Science: Rock deformation goes magnetic, 353: 6307, 1509, 30 September 2016

Reports: High-resolution lithosphere viscosity and dynamics revealed by magnetotelluric imaging, 353: 6307, 1515-1519, 30 September 2016

This Week in Science: Earthquakes get a more flexible source, 354: 6308, 77, 7 October 2016

Reports: Localized seismic deformation in the upper mantle revealed by dense seismic arrays, 354: 6308, 88-92, 7 October 2016

In Depth: Joint research push targets fast-melting Antarctic ice, 354: 6309, 159-160, 14 October 2016

This Week in Science: Why we are losing sea ice, 354: 6313, 716, 11 Nov 2016

Reports: Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission, 354: 6313, 747-750, 11 Nov 2016

Perspectives: Revealing the dynamics of a large impact, 354: 6314, 836-837, 18 November 2016

Reports: The formation of peak rings in large impact craters, 354: 6314, 878-882, 18 November 2016

In Brief: Air pollution, in real time, 354: 6315, 948-950, 25 November 2016

In Depth: Gas changes signal eruptions, 354: 6315, 952-953, 25 November 2016

In Depth: Graveyard of cold slabs mapped in Earth’s mantle, 354: 6315, 954-955, 25 November 2016

This Week in Science: Mega-earthquakes go the flat way, 354: 6315, 1016, 25 November 2016

Reports: Mega-earthquakes rupture flat megathrusts, 354: 6315, 1027-1031, 25 November 2016

In Depth: Corals tie stronger El Ninos to climate change, 354: 6317, 1210, 9 December 2016

Perspectives: The smoking gun of the ice ages, 354: 6317, 1235-1236, 9 December 2016

Perspectives: How high will the seas rise? 354: 6318, 1375-1377, 16 December 2016

In Brief: Volcanic carbon dioxide seen from space, 354: 6319, 1508-1509, 23 December 2016

月球

This Week in Science: The Moon's time-variable exosphere, 351: 6270, 236, 15 January 2016

Perspectives: Sampling the Moon's atmosphere, 351: 6270, 230-231, 15 January 2016

Reports: How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere, 351: 6270, 249-252, 15 January 2016

This Week in Science: Rehomogenizing the Earth-Moon system, 351: 6272, 461, 29 January 2016

Reports: Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impact, 351: 6272, 493-496, 29 January 2016

In Brief: Company OK’d to visit moon, 353: 6300, 628-630, 12 August 2016

This Week in Science: On the origin of Orientale basin, 354: 6311, 429, 28 October 2016

Reports: Gravity field of the Orientale basin from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission, 354: 6311, 438-441, 28 October 2016

Reports: Formation of the Orientale lunar multiring basin, 354: 6311, 441-444, 28 October 2016

In Depth: X Prize finalists mull payloads to the moon, 354: 6319, 1510-1511, 23 December 2016

水星

In Brief: Mercury is covered in pencil lead, 351: 6278, 1120-1121, 11 March 2016

In Brief: The smallest planet, in silhouette, 352: 6287, 748-749, 13 May 2016

火星

In Depth: Mars orbiter to sniff for methane, 351: 6278, 1122-1123, 11 March 2016

In Brief: Methane-sniffing mission heads to Mars, 351: 6279, 1244-1246, 18 March 2016

In Depth: Sandy ripples point to Mars's past, 352: 6281, 16-17, 1 April 2016

In Brief: Mars exploration shuffle, 352: 6286, 632-634, 6 May 2016

This Week in Science: Evidence for ice ages on Mars, 352: 6289, 1071, 27 May 2016

Reports: An ice age recorded in the polar deposits of Mars, 352: 6289, 1075-1078, 27 May 2016   火星正从冰期中走出: 对火星极地冰盖所做的雷达测量揭示,如今大多为干燥且多尘的火星是在经历了多轮气候变化后从冰期中走出的。了解火星气候可帮助确定它在过去的什么时候适宜居住,这种情况是如何改变的,并能为地球气候变化研究提供信息。模型提示,火星在过去经历了冰期,但证实这种情况的确凿数据一直颇为稀少。Isaac Smith和同事在此用雷达来分析火星极地冰盖内的冰层,他们所用的是火星勘测轨道飞行器上的浅部雷达仪。随着冰的侵蚀,风能打造出螺旋凹槽和其它鲜明的特征。对冰内的这些层状特征进行描摹可揭示过去的冰的积累和流动变化-因而也能揭示气候变化。尽管火星南部冰盖相对较小且受到陨星撞击的改变,但研究人员能够对其北极冰盖内的层状特征进行描摹。他们发现了坡度陡然增加的冰层及迁移路径,方向逆转或被完全埋没。他们的分析提示,火星目前正从冰期中走出,该冰期是在大约37万年前开始退却的。

This Week in Science: Unexpected forms of sand dunes on Mars, 353: 6294, 39, 1 July 2016

Reports: Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution, 353: 6294, 55-58, 1 July 2016  火星上的一令种人困惑的沙丘形状: 研究人员在火星上发现了一类沙丘,其大小间于涟漪状沙丘与波状沙丘之间,它与在地球上所见的任何沙丘都不同。由于沙丘会随着时间推移而以岩石状态被保存,因此这些神秘的沉积物积淀可能代表了一种了解火星大气演变的线索:即火星如何从一个气候较为适宜的地方变成如今所观察到的气候恶劣、干燥的场所。在地球上,刮风和流水在通过沙地时会导致大型沙丘或小型沙纹的形成,它们被统称为底形。应用来自火星勘测轨道飞行器和好奇号漫游器的的一组图像,Andre Lapotre和同事在此对火星的底形图像进行了分析。他们说,尽管他们所分析的沉积物确实是由风在沙上吹拂形成的,但这些沉积物更类似于在水下形成的沙丘形状和沙纹间隔。根据在地球上的数十年水槽实验,研究人员弄清楚了一种比例缩放关系,它能用来预测水下波纹的波峰至波峰间距;他们最终证明,它能准确地预测新的火星风致波纹间距。研究人员将这些沉积物(它们是由不同于在地球上所见的大气条件造成的)命名为"风曳波纹"。因为Lapotre和同事还能证明这些波纹的大小可随大气密度而改变,因此他们创建了一种方法——它能用火星沉积岩观测来检测火星大气密度随着时间而发生的总体变化。

In Brief: China unveils new Mars rover, 353: 6303, 970-972, 2 September 2016

In Depth: Mars lander crash adds to 2020 rover worries, 354: 6311, 397-398, 28 October 2016

In Brief: Three Qs: National Geographic Channel will broadcast the big-budget TV series MARS, 354: 6313, 686-688, 11 Nov 2016

In Brief: Mars mission a go; asteroid lander killed, 354: 6317, 1208-1209, 9 December 2016

木星

 In Depth: Telescope and NASA mission get under Jupiter's skin, 352: 6290, 1155-1156, 3 June 2016

This Week in Science: A radio view into Jupiter's atmosphere, 352: 6290, 1185, 3 June 2016

Reports: Peering through Jupiter's clouds with radio spectral imaging, 352: 6290, 1198-1201, 3 June 2016  木星厚云层下有漩涡状氨气:据一项新的研究报告,天文学家用无线电波能够透视木星厚厚的云层,并对这颗巨大气体行星的大气有所了解。对木星先前的无线电波研究一直局限于在特定纬度分析其属性,但新的观察对木星云层之下的活动提供了一个广泛、全面的看法。为了获取这些详细数据,Imke de Pater和同事使用了近来得到升级的央斯基甚大阵( VLA )观测站,检测到了来自木星大气的一系列的无线电频率。它揭示了若干热点,即缺少云和可凝结气体(特别是不透明的氨气波涛)的“干燥”区。对新型VLA数据的分析表明,这种氨气集中的区域一直会延伸至木星云层形成的底部。上升的氨气羽流以波浪模式膨胀,这是该大气内深部运动的一个识别特征。作者们说,这些羽流中的氨气会在更高的高度凝结出来,这可以解释1990年代时由伽利略太空船所检测到的氨冰云。这些结果对巨大气体行星的大气给予了更多的阐述,并会给朱诺太空船提供重要的背景信息;该太空船计划在20167月到达木星。

In Brief: Jupiter has a new orbiter, 353: 6295, 104-105, 8 July 2016

In Brief: A swoop past the stormy planet, 353: 6304, 1074-1076, 9 September 2016

小行星

Editors' Choice: Bright spots on Ceres may contain water, 351: 6270, 237, 15 January 2016

This Week in Science: New Horizons unveils the Pluto system, 351: 6279, 1276, 18 March 2016 来自飞越冥王星的新数据:据新视野太空使命专题报告中的5项新的研究结果报道,冥王星的表面呈现了形形色色的风貌。该矮行星与其大卫星——冥卫一(Charon)的相异性要多过相似性。更重要的是,本研究集揭示,冥王星会改变其在太空中的环境-即它会与其周围的太阳风等离子体和高能粒子相互作用。这些结果为冥王星的许多进一步的深化研究铺设了道路。

美国航空航天局(NASA)的新视野太空使命继续在下载其2015714日历史性飞越时采自冥王星和其卫星——冥卫一的信息。当这些数据到达地球时,科学家们对其进行了处理和研究。在此论文集5篇文章的第一篇中,Jeffrey Moore等对冥王星和冥卫一的各种各样地质特征中的某些进行了首次描述。他们报告了在冥王星的板块构造、冰川流动、大型水冰块传输及宽阔土丘的证据——这些可能都是冰火山的结果。有关地形变异的数据提示,该矮行星的表面因诸如侵蚀等过程而频繁地改造,表明在过去的几亿年中其内部存在着活跃的地貌改变过程。这样的过程最近在冥卫一上则不这样活跃,冥卫一被分成崎岖的北部和平坦的南部,其标志是较老的陨石坑和槽谷——与冥王星形成了对照。

在第二项研究中,Will Grundy等分析了冥王星和冥卫一结冰表面的颜色和化学组成。他们报告说,这些主宰着冥王星表面的不稳定性冰包括了水冰和固态氮,它们是以一种复杂方式分布的,这是在不同的季节性和地质时间尺度中作用于表面的地貌变化过程的结果。该研究提出,区域广阔的被称作索林(tholins)的红褐色分子积聚在冥王星的某些地方。在第三项研究中,G. Gladstone等人对冥王星的大气进行了研究,该大气比预期的更冷和紧凑并含有无数广延的薄雾层。在第四项研究中,Harold Weaver等对冥王星较小的卫星冥卫二(Nix)、冥卫三(Hydra)、冥卫四(Kerberos)和冥卫五(Styx)进行了研究,它们呈不规则形状,它们旋转快速并有着光亮的表面。最后,Fran Bagenal等人报告了冥王星是如何改变其表面环境的,其中包括它与太阳风的相互作用以及在该系统中缺乏尘埃。总之,这些来自飞越冥王星的结果为科学家们更好地理解行星演化过程做了准备。

Research Articles: The atmosphere of Pluto as observed by New Horizons, 351: 6279, 1280, 18 March 2016

Research Articles: The small satellites of Pluto as observed by New Horizons, 351: 6279, 1281, 18 March 2016

Research Articles: Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust, 351: 6279, 1282, 18 March 2016

Research Articles: Surface compositions across Pluto and Charon, 351: 6279, 1283, 18 March 2016

Research Articles: The geology of Pluto and Charon through the eyes of New Horizons, 351: 6279, 1284-1293, 18 March 2016

In Brief: Dawn, New Horizons updates, 353: 6295, 104-105, 8 July 2016

Editors' Choice: Smashing bits to show asteroid strength, 353: 6296, 259, 15 July 2016

In Depth: NASA to launch asteroid-sampling mission, 353: 6303, 974-975, 2 September 2016

This Week in Science: Dawn explores the dwarf planet Ceres, 353: 6303, 1000, 2 September 2016

Editors' Choice: The closest quasi-satellite to Earth, 353: 6303, 1001, 2 September 2016

Research Articles: Cratering on Ceres: Implications for its crust and evolution, 353: 6303, 1003(+aaf4759-1-8), 2 September 2016

Research Articles: The geomorphology of Ceres, 353: 6303, 1004(+aaf4332-1-8), 2 September 2016

Research Articles: Cryovolcanism on Ceres, 353: 6303, 1005(+aaf4286-1-8), 2 September 2016

Research Articles: Distribution of phyllosilicates on the surface of Ceres, 353: 6303, 1006(+aaf4279-1-5), 2 September 2016

Research Articles: Detection of local H2O exposed at the surface of Ceres, 353: 6303, 1007(+aaf3010-1-6), 2 September 2016

Reports: Dawn arrives at Ceres: Exploration of a small, volatile-rich world, 353: 6303, 1008-1010, 2 September 2016  黎明号飞船来到谷神星: 这组文章重点介绍了对谷神星(Ceres)的新的、出乎意料的了解,它是一颗矮行星,也是在(位于火星和木星之间)小行星带中最大的星体。这些来自黎明号飞船(它已经环绕谷神星做轨道运行)的结果揭示,在谷神星上有火山口、裂缝、冰火山及其它地质过程的标记。这些文章共同让人们对谷神星有了长足的了解,这是一个岩石和冰的世界。

从前,科学家们提出,某些星体可有基于熔冰而非熔岩的火山活动。有关这些冰火山的证据在此之前仍然一直难以找到。基于对黎明号成像数据的分析,Ottaviano Ruesch和同事提出,他们已经在谷神星上找到了一个冰火山构造,它被命名为阿胡纳山(Ahuna Mons)。这座穹顶形状的山有着椭圆形基部、凹陷顶部以及其它表明有冰火山活动的属性。作者用建模来确定阿胡纳山的年龄,发现它是在环绕它的火山口形成之后出现的,这表明它的存在相对较为近来。作者说,没有挤压构造作用的证据,也没有被侵蚀的特征;他们指出,膨出似乎是形成阿胡纳山背后的主要驱动力。尽管驱动该冰火山的确切物质在没有进一步数据时无法确定,但作者提出,含氯盐(它们过去在谷神星的不同区域曾被发现)可能存在于谷神星表面之下的水冰中,并驱动了形成阿胡纳山的化学活动。

在第二个研究中,Jean-Philippe Combe等人描述了对暴露在谷神星表面水冰的发现。该矮行星已知含有水冰,但预计它在表面是不稳定的,因此科学家们不确定是否能在那里找到它。他们在2015年中有5次用装载于黎明号飞船上的可见和红外(VIR)绘图光谱仪对在一个被称作Oxo的年轻火山口中的高度反光区进行了分析。作者说,数据显示,在一个面积覆盖不到1平方公里的区域内有含水物质,它最有可能是水冰,尽管也有可能是水合矿物。鉴于谷神星上的环境,水冰应该在几十年内就会从表面移除;因此,只有水的相对近来的暴露或形成才能解释黎明号的发现。作者们就这种水如何在最近出现在谷神星的表面提出了几种解释,他们说,最可能的场景是近表面富含水的物质因为撞击或局部滑坡而被暴露。

黎明号使命首席研究员Christopher Russell和同事对在谷神星上意外发现高能带电太阳粒子进行了讨论。黎明号伽玛射线和中子探测(GRaND)仪发现了与谷神星相互作用的太阳风快速脉冲。作者们提出了两种可能的解释:最可能的情况是,该矮行星可能有一个弱大气,它被太阳风中的高能粒子离子化,并在太阳风被偏转时产生弓形激波。作者说,另外一种几率较小的可能性是谷神星含盐量高的内部驱动了电流,制造了磁场,后者会令太阳风偏转。

Harald Hiesinger等人所做的研究分析了谷神星上的火山口,他们用的是安装在黎明号上的分幅相机(FC)。该小行星过去被认为在其表面之下有一冰层,但该火山口的深度和形状表明,谷神星外壳既非纯冰也非纯岩,而是介于两者间的混合物。例如,如果谷神星含有一个占主导的冰层,那么即使是小型火山口预计都会在1000万至1亿年内"松解",但这与黎明号所观察到的不符。通过计数表面火山口的数目和大小,作者还能对不同区域进行年代测定。

在另外一则研究中,Debra Buczkowski等重点介绍谷神星上观察到的不同类型的构造,包括火山口、穹顶、叶状流和线型结构。这些特征中有些是由撞击引起的,但另外有些提示有诸如次表层断裂等地质过程。某些特征似乎是由冰岩浆活动或冰火山过程形成的,这些过程是由来自表层下的熔冰驱动的。作者还指出,在谷神星表面发现的这些构造的图案提示有湧升盐流。

最后,Eleonora Ammannito和同事对含有镁和铵的粘土样层状硅酸盐矿物的分布进行了分析。研究人员用装载于黎明号的可见与红外绘图光谱仪确定,这些遍布于谷神星的层状硅酸盐组成相当一致,但其丰度则各不相同。由于这些矿物需要有水才能形成,因此作者提出,普遍和广泛的水蚀变过程在该矮行星历史的某个时候对它造成了影响。

In Brief: Luxembourg eyes asteroid mining, 354: 6313, 686-688, 11 Nov 2016

彗星

In Depth: Rosetta ends 2-year comet mission with final descent, 353: 6307, 1482-1483, 30 September 2016

In Brief: Rosetta's last moments, in pictures, 354: 6308, 16-17, 7 October 2016

Perspectives: More than a day in the life of a comet, 354: 6319, 1536-1537, 23 December 2016

This Week in Science: Rosetta observes sublimating surface ices, 354: 6319, 1546, 23 December 2016

Reports: Seasonal exposure of carbon dioxide ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, 354: 6319, 1563-1566, 23 December 2016

Reports: Rosetta's comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sheds its dusty mantle to reveal its icy nature, 354: 6319, 1566-1570, 23 December 2016

流星和陨星

In Brief: Pay dirt! Scientists find big impact, 352: 6286, 632-634, 6 May 2016

太阳系

Feature: Number 9, 351: 6271, 330-333, 22 January 2016

This Week in Science: Cassini detects interstellar dust grains, 352: 6283, 304, 15 April 2016

Research Articles: Flux and composition of interstellar dust at Saturn from Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer, 352: 6283, 312-318, 15 April 2016

Perspectives: Connecting the dots in magnetic reconnection, 352: 6290, 1176-1177, 3 June 2016

This Week in Science: Probing magnetic reconnection in space, 352: 6290, 1185, 3 June 2016

Research Articles: Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space, 352: 6290, 1189, 3 June 2016

Newsmakers: Three Qs, 354: 6308, 16-17, 7 October 2016

In Depth: Hunt for Planet Nine heats up, 354: 6311, 399-400, 28 October 2016

Editors' Choice: A star passing close to the solar system, 354: 6318, 1388, 16 December 2016

Areas to watch in 2017: Searching for planet nine, 354: 6319, 1524, 23 December 2016

外星行星

In Brief: NASA's planet hunter safe again, for now, 352: 6283, 274-276, 15 April 2016

In Depth: Kepler enlists relativity to find planets, 352: 6285, 504-505, 29 April 2016

Editors' Choice: Can a red dwarf host a habitable planet? 352: 6293, 1531, 24 June 2016

Feature: Forbidden planets, 353: 6298, 438-441, 29 July 2016

Perspectives: Making sense of the exoplanet zoo, 353: 6300, 644-645, 12 August 2016

This Week in Science: Spying a planet in a triple-star system, 353: 6300, 660, 12 August 2016

Research Articles: Direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet within a triple-star system, 353: 6300, 673-678, 12 August 2016

In Depth: The exoplanet next door, 353: 6302, 857, 26 August 2016

Perspectives: Detecting structure in a protostellar disk, 353: 6307, 1492-1493, 30 September 2016

This Week in Science: Spiral arms in a disk around a young star, 353: 6307, 1509, 30 September 2016

Reports: Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk, 353: 6307, 1519-1521, 30 September 2016

The runners-up: The exoplanet next door, 354: 6319, 1518-1523, 23 December 2016

恒星

This Week in Science: The most luminous supernova to date, 351: 6270, 236, 15 January 2016

Reports: ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova, 351: 6270, 257-260, 15 January 2016 新发现的超新星亮度超过其它所有的超新星:在一项新的研究中,研究人员描述了迄今所观测到的最明亮的超新星,它位于一个不同寻常的寄主星系内。这一发现将对了解高光度超新星(SLSNe)以及它们如何影响其寄主星系提供重要的线索。SLSNe是在不到20年前首次被确认的,而人们对这些格外明亮的爆发恒星所知甚少。这颗打破记录的超新星是在去年6月通过超新星体系全天空自动测量而被发现的。据Subo Dong等人的分析,这颗被他们称作ASASSN-15lh的高光度超新星比目前在文献中发表的所有其它超新星都要亮至少2倍。ASASSN-15lh所处的位置同样耐人寻味:尽管大多数的SLSNe出现在小型但"活动频繁的"的正在形成恒星的星系中,但ASASSN-15lh 却是在一个相当平静的大型星系中爆发的。作者们指出,ASASSN-15lh的行为与贫氢期SLSNe的温度和亮度相仿,但却要更为极端得多。作者们推测,在没有氢时,ASASSN-15lh所发出的超凡光度的动力可能来自数量惊人的镍的衰变(其质量大约为太阳的30倍),或是来自一颗快速旋转的高磁性中子星。对ASASSN-15lh的进一步探索可对SLSNe的神秘性质有新的了解。

This Week in Science: How stars grow, 351: 6274, 676, 12 February 2016

Editors' Choice: Red giants can get dusty with age, 351: 6276, 930, 26 February 2016

In Depth: Fast radio bursts tease astronomers, 351: 6277, 1012-1013, 4 March 2016

This Week in Science: Discovery of an oxygen white dwarf, 352: 6281, 48, 1 April 2016

Perspectives: An odd one out, 352: 6281, 37, 1 April 2016

Reports: A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere, 352: 6281, 67-69, 1 April 2016  显示出不同寻常氧大气层的白矮星:研究人员发现了一颗白矮星,其大气以氧气为主;研究人员曾经推测这类白矮星的存在,但在此之前它还未被发现过。这一发现有潜力挑战单颗恒星演变的学术理解,并能为理解过去10年中发现的某些类型的超新星提供关键性线索。当相对较小的恒星(那些质量不到我们太阳10倍的恒星)接近其生命尾声时,会甩掉其外层并变成非常致密的白矮星。发生在这种密度下的超重力会使像氢或氦等较轻元素漂浮于恒星的表面,并掩盖住下方较重的元素。在对来自斯隆数字巡天(SDSS)数据进行梳理时,Souza Oliveira Kepler等人发现了SDSS J124043.01+671034.68,它是一颗白矮星,其外层轻质元素被剥离,显示了一个近乎纯粹的氧气层。几种不同的理论曾经预测白矮星的外层可被剥夺,但SDSS J124043.01 +671034.68的发现第一次为这种现象提供了证据。发证这种情况的一个可能性是其与附近双星中的一颗伴星的相互作用使得 SDSS J124043.01+671034.68 裸露出其氧包层。另一种可能性是来自该恒星中央的竞相外冲的燃烧碳巨大脉冲消除了较轻的元素。由Boris Gansicke撰写的一篇《视角》文章对这一研究成果的来龙去脉进行了阐述。

In Brief: Supernovae leave their fingerprints on Earth, 352: 6282, 124-126, 8 April 2016

Reports: Ribose and related sugars from ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogs, 352: 6282, 208-212, 8 April 2016

This Week in Science: Cosmic rays from a nearby supernova, 352: 6286, 668, 6 May 2016

Research Articles: Observation of the 60Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays, 352: 6286, 677-680, 6 May 2016

In Depth: Paired stars sculpt nebulae into fanciful shapes, 353: 6306, 1351, 23 September 2016

In Brief: A spinning, star-eating black hole, 354: 6318, 1356-1358, 16 December 2016

星团

In Brief: Hubble unveils monster stars, 351: 6280, 1372-1374, 25 March 2016

星云

In Science Journals: Water isomers hide their origin, 351: 6268, 37-39, 1 January 2016

Reports: Statistical ortho-to-para ratio of water desorbed from ice at 10 kelvin, 351: 6268, 65-67, 1 January 2016

This Week in Science: Identifying live radio scattering events, 351: 6271, 350, 22 January 2016

Reports: Real-time detection of an extreme scattering event: Constraints on Galactic plasma lenses, 351: 6271, 354-356, 22 January 2016

This Week in Science: Making ribose in interstellar ices, 352: 6282, 183, 8 April 2016

This Week in Science: Chiral molecule discovered in space, 352: 6292, 1421, 17 June 2016

Reports: Discovery of the interstellar chiral molecule propylene oxide (CH3CHCH2O), 352: 6292, 1449-1452, 17 June 2016

Editors' Choice: Reflected starlight traces dust structure, 353: 6307,1510, 30 September 2016

银河系

In Brief: The Milky Way grew out as it grew up, 351: 6270, 208, 15 January 2016

Editors' Choice: An unusual satellite of the Milky Way, 351: 6278, 1163, 11 March 2016

This Week in Science: Mapping the local Milky Way, 353: 6307, 1509, 30 September 2016

河外星系

Perspectives: The screams of a star being ripped apart, 351: 6268, 30-31, 1 January 2016

In Science Journals: Transient radio jet from a black hole, 351: 6268, 37-38, 1 January 2016

Reports: A radio jet from the optical and x-ray bright stellar tidal disruption flare ASASSN-14li, 351: 6268, 62-65, 1 January 2016

Editors' Choice: Machine learning in cosmological models, 352: 6281, 49, 1 April 2016

Editors' Choice: Under pressure in the Magellanic Clouds, 352: 6285, 547, 29 April 2016

Editors' Choice: Stellar bars knock holes in galaxy discs, 354: 6311, 430, 28 October 2016

大尺度宇宙

In Brief: A spattering of galaxies, 353: 6297, 328-330, 22 July 2016

Editors' Choice: Is the Local Group useful for cosmology? 353: 6300, 661, 12 August 2016

Editors' Choice: How many galaxies are in the universe? 354: 6314, 844, 18 November 2016

Perspectives: A fast radio boom, 354: 6317, 1230-1231, 9 December 2016

This Week in Science: Probing the intergalactic magnetic field, 354: 6317, 1245, 9 December 2016

Reports: The magnetic field and turbulence of the cosmic web measured using a brilliant fast radio burst, 354: 6317, 1249-1252, 9 December 2016

宇宙暗成分

In Depth: Crunch time for dark matter hunt, 351: 6280, 1376-1377, 25 March 2016

In Brief: Dark matter hunt comes up empty, 353: 6298, 428-431, 29 July 2016

早期宇宙

In Depth: Astronomers see ashes of the first stars, 351: 6270, 211, 15 January 2016

This Week in Science: Shining brightly in the early universe, 352: 6293, 1530, 24 June 2016

Reports: Detection of an oxygen emission line from a high-redshift galaxy in the reionization epoch, 352: 6293, 1559-1562, 24 June 2016

In Depth: Hubble uses galactic lens to study universe's first stars, 354: 6316, 1087, 2 December 2016

Perspectives: Galaxy formation through cosmic recycling, 354: 6316, 1102-1103, 2 December 2016

This Week in Science: A massive galaxy forming from molecular gas, 354: 6316, 1114, 2 December 2016

Reports: Molecular gas in the halo fuels the growth of a massive cluster galaxy at high redshift, 354: 6316, 1128-1130, 2 December 2016

引力

In Depth: Triumph for gravitational wave hunt, 351: 6274, 645-646, 12 February 2016

In Depth: Gravitational waves serve up a mystery, 351: 6275, 796-797, 19 February 2016

In Depth: The scientist who spotted the fateful signal—and let the cat out of the bag, 351: 6275, 796-797, 19 February 2016

In Brief: LIGO-India gets green light, 351: 6276, 896-898, 26 February 2016

In Depth: In search of spacetime megawaves, 351: 6278, 1124-1125, 11 March 2016

Editorial: Throwing deep, 351: 6279, 1243, 18 March 2016

In Brief: KAGRA starts its test run, 352: 6281, 12-14, 1 April 2016

Books et al.: Fear and loathing in the hunt for gravitational waves, 352: 6283, 300, 15 April 2016

In Brief: LISA Pathfinder passes test, 352: 6291, 1256-1258, 10 June 2016

In Depth: LIGO detects another black hole crash, 352: 6292, 1374-1375, 17 June 2016

Feature: The long road to LIGO, 353: 6299, 534-535, 5 August 2016

In Brief: NASA may rejoin LISA mission, 353: 6305, 1188-1190, 16 September 2016

In Depth: Will Nobel Prize overlook LIGO's master builder? 353: 6307, 1478-1479, 30 September 2016

In Brief: Gravitational wave hunt resumes, 354: 6317, 1208-1209, 9 December 2016

2016 Breakthrough of the Year: The cosmos aquiver, 354: 6319, 1516-1517, 23 December 2016

Scorecard for 2016: Gravitational waves, 354: 6319, 1523, 23 December 2016

时空结构

Books et al.: Rethinking the arrow of time, 353: 6307, 1504, 30 September 2016

粒子物理学

In Brief: 2016: a look ahead: What's hot—and what's not: Higgs partners, Natural supersymmetry, 351: 6268, 8, 1 January 2016

In Depth: Giant atom-smasher gears up to chase whiff of new physics, 351: 6279, 1248-1249, 18 March 2016

In Depth: Long-delayed nuclear center looks set for construction, 353: 6295, 107-108, 8 July 2016

Editors' Choice: A quantum test of free fall, 353: 6298, 459, 29 July 2016

In Depth: Particle no-show at LHC prompts anxiety, 353: 6300, 635-636, 12 August 2016

This Week in Science: The deuteron is too small, too, 353: 6300, 660, 12 August 2016

Research Articles: Laser spectroscopy of muonic deuterium, 353: 6300, 669-673, 12 August 2016

In Brief: Nobelist against supercollider, 353: 6305, 1188-1190, 16 September 2016

机构和仪器

In Depth: Japanese satellite targets the x-ray universe 351: 6273, 547, 5 February 2016

Features: The next big eye, 351: 6275, 804-809, 19 February 2016

In Brief: NASA's next space telescope, 351: 6276, 896-898, 26 February 2016

In Brief: Japan puts X-ray observatory in orbit, 351: 6276, 896-898, 26 February 2016

In Depth: Five-year plan boosts basic research funding, 351: 6280, 1382, 25 March 2016

In Brief: X-ray observatory status unknown, 352: 6281, 12-14, 1 April 2016

In Brief: Scientists hunt for Hitomi, 352: 6282, 124-126, 8 April 2016

In Brief: Deal inked for massive telescope, 352: 6290, 1148-1150, 3 June 2016

In Depth: Titanic balloon sets record and tantalizes scientists, 353: 6295, 108-109, 8 July 2016

In Brief: China builds cosmic ray array, 353: 6301, 732-734, 19 August 2016

In Brief: New space observatory could consume astronomy funds, 353: 6301, 732-734, 19 August 2016

Feature: The biggest ear, 353: 6307, 1488-1491, 30 September 2016

In Brief: Gender bias in telescope time, 354: 6309, 152-154, 14 October 2016

In Depth: As Hawaii deliberates, giant telescope considers new home, 354: 6309, 156-157, 14 October 2016

In Brief: A backup site for the TMT, 354: 6312, 530-532, 4 November 2016

In Depth: NSF says: Out with the old telescopes, in with the new, 354: 6313, 693-694, 11 Nov 2016

航天

 In Brief: Astro-H's death knell, 352: 6286, 632-634, 6 May 2016

In Brief: Push for Alpha Centauri, 352: 6289, 1036-1038, 27 May 2016

In Depth: Shooting for a star, 352: 6289, 1040-1041, 27 May 2016

Feature: Red star rising, 353: 6297, 342-345, 22 July 2016

Feature: Who’s missing from this picture? 353: 6297, 345, 22 July 2016

In Brief: Satellite shuffle for South Pole, 353: 6298, 428-431, 29 July 2016

In Depth: Deep Space Network glitches worry scientists, 353: 6307, 1477-1478, 30 September 2016

In Brief: Three Qs about the future of U.S. science policy, 354: 6318, 1356-1358, 16 December 2016

星空

This Week in Science: Star light, star bright? 352: 6292, 1421, 17 June 2016

时间计量

In Brief: China's space clock is ticking, 353: 6307, 1474-1476, 30 September 2016

古天文学
Cover stories: Making the Babylonian tablet cover, 351: 6272, 421, 29 January 2016

In Depth: Ancient Babylonians took fi rst steps to calculus, 351: 6272, 435, 29 January 2016

This Week in Science: Babylonian astronomers tracked Jupiter, 351: 6272, 461, 29 January 2016

Reports: Ancient Babylonian astronomers calculated Jupiter's position from the area under a time-velocity graph, 351: 6272, 482-484, 29 January 2016   古巴比伦人用高等几何来跟踪木星:对古巴比伦陶板的分析揭示,其制作者用几何学方法来计算木星的位置;这种方法过去被认为是在至少1400年后在14世纪的欧洲发展出来的。这些陶板是已知用几何学来计算星球时空位置的最早实例;它们表明,古巴比伦天文学家可能对西方科学中的这些方法的出现有影响。在这篇《报告》中,Mathieu Ossendrijver4幅几乎完好无缺的陶板文字的翻译进行了讨论,它们最有可能是在公元前350年至50年间书写的。它们描绘了木星第一次沿着视野出现的两个间距,计算了木星在60天和120天时的位置。这些文字中包含了基于一个梯形面积以及其"长边""短边"的计算。这些古代的天文学家还通过将该梯形分割成两个较小的同等面积来计算木星覆盖这一60天距离的一半所需的时间。Ossendrijver 指出,古希腊人用几何图形来描绘星球在实际太空中的分布构象,而这些巴比伦陶版则以抽象方式运用几何学来定义时间和速度。这些陶版改写了我们的历史书,揭示了14世纪时在牛津和巴黎的欧洲学者(他们被认为发明了这样的计算)的发明实际上比他们的古巴比伦同行要晚了好几个世纪。

人物

In Brief: Scottish astronomer will be first woman to appear on U.K. money, 351: 6275, 792-795, 19 February 2016

Editorial: Einstein v. Roberts, 351: 6280, 1371, 25 March 2016


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