注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

星海微萤

为天文研究工作者、天文爱好者和大众提供有用的信息

 
 
 

日志

 
 

《Nature》2016年天文学文章索引(12 月 22 日更新)  

2016-01-14 14:37:08|  分类: 文献索引 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

综论

News in Focus: The science to look out for in 2016, 529: 7584, 14–15, 7 January 2016

Editorials: Go forth and replicate! 536: 7617, 373, 25 August 2016

Books in brief: Calculating the Cosmos: How Mathematics Unveils the Universe, 537: 7621, 485, 22 September 2016

Books in brief: Welcome to the Universe: An Astrophysical Tour, 538: 7624, 169, 13 October 2016

太阳

Books in Brief: 15 Million Degrees: A Journey to the Centre of the Sun, 532, 7598, 175, 14 April 2016

Seven Days: Solar-storm war risk, 536: 7616, 254–255, 18 August 2016

News in Focus: US sharpens surveillance of crippling solar storms, 537: 7621, 458-459, 22 September 2016

News in Focus: Hiccups for US satellite, 539: 7627, 15–16, 3 November 2016

地球

Coming Up: NASA plans to launch its Jason3 satellite to measure Earth's sea levels, 529: 7585, 132–133, 14 January 2016

Coming Up: Sentinel-3A, a European Space Agency Earth-observing satellite, launches, 530: 7589, 134–135, 11 February 2016

Seven Days: Satellite tracks sea-surface levels, 531: 7595, 418–419, 24 March 2016

Articles: Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise, 531: 7596, 591-597, 31 March 2016 封面故事:南极洲冰层对海平面上升的贡献:本期Nature的封面图片所示为201619日西南极 “思韦茨冰川” (Thwaites Glacier) 端部的冰崖的一幅由 Landsat 8”卫星拍摄的自然色拼接图。Robert DeConto David Pollard采用一个新改进的、 按“上新世”和 “末次间冰期”的海平面估计值做了校准的数值冰层模型,来预测今后五个世纪南极洲由一系列不同的温室气体情景所驱动的演变。该模拟显示,南极洲冰层对海平面上升的贡献潜力是在从几乎没有贡献到在2100年之前贡献超过一米、在2500年之前贡献超过15米之间。令人吃惊的高端估计值来自不减少的温室气体排放量和以前估计不足的两个机制:由表面融水造成的冰裂和大冰崖的坍塌。低端估计值表明,通过采取强有力的措施控制气候变化,能够极大减小人类社会受海平面上升影响的风险。封面图片:Knut Christianson利用从美国地质调查局获得的数据制作。

Letters: Measurement of the Earth tides with a MEMS gravimeter, 531: 7596, 614-617, 31 March 2016 能安装到无人机上测量地球潮汐的重力计:重力计能测出局部重力加速的微小变化,其灵敏度高到足以能测量到地球的潮汐:由太阳、地球和月球的相对相位的改变造成的地壳弹性变形。现有重力计体积大、成本高,但现在Giles Hammond及同事开发出了具有一个新颖的 “反弹簧” (anti-spring) 设计的一种紧凑的、便宜的微机电重力计。他们用它来测量重力加速,其灵敏度和稳定性高到足以能检测到地球的潮汐。该装置的小尺寸和低成本意味着,它可以安装到用于进行测量和勘探工作的一架无人机上、用来监测火山、或内置到多像素密度对比成像阵列中。

Seven Days: Crater drilling, 532: 7597, 10–11, 7 April 2016

Letters: Chondritic xenon in the Earth's mantle, 533: 7601, 82–85, 5 May 2016 地幔中的小行星物质:Antonio Caracausi等人发表了对来自德国Eifel火山区的岩浆气所做的一项高精度分析,其结果显示,轻的氙同位素反映了与大气中氙的前体不同的一个球粒状陨石的原始成分。这与地幔中挥发性元素的小行星起源是一致的,说明大气和地幔中的挥发性成分源自截然不同的宇宙化学来源。他们得出结论认为,氙同位素系统学研究结果说明,洋中脊(mid-ocean-ridge)与大陆或海洋柱(oceanic plume)来源明显不同,其化学异质性可以追溯到地球吸积时期。

News & Views: Ancient air caught by shooting stars, 533: 7602, 184–186, 12 May 2016

Letters: Ancient micrometeorites suggestive of an oxygen-rich Archaean upper atmosphere, 533: 7602, 235–238, 12 May 2016  太古代上层大气:支持早期地球上大气中氧含量较低观点的大多数证据都与太古代下层大气的组成有关。这篇论文识别出了在澳大利亚距今27亿年的石灰岩中所保存的化石微陨石,这是迄今所发现的最古老的化石微陨石。这些微陨石保存了与太古代上层大气所发生的化学相互作用的一个记录,因为它们的组成表明,当它们在进入富含氧的大气层而发生熔化时,它们被氧化了。

Letters: A rapid burst in hotspot motion through the interaction of tectonics and deep mantle flow, 533: 7602, 239–242, 12 May 2016

Research Highlights: Ancient Earth rocks emerge from lava, 533: 7603, 294–295, 19 May 2016

Seven Days: Australian quake, 533: 7604, 442–443, 26 May 2016

Coming Up: Representatives from science, business and government will gather in Berlin for the Group on Earth Observation's workshop for European projects, 533: 7604, 442–443, 26 May 2016

News in Focus: Next generation of carbon-monitoring satellites faces daunting hurdles, 533: 7604, 446–447, 26 May 2016

Coming Up: The biennial Conference on Mathematical Geophysics takes place, 534: 7605, 10–11, 2 June 2016

News & Views: Earth's core problem, 534: 7605, 45, 2 June 2016

Letters: Experimental determination of the electrical resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions, 534: 7605, 95–98, 2 June 2016

Seven Days: Polar evacuation, 534: 7608, 440–441, 23 June 2016

Seven Days: South Pole CO2, 534: 7608, 440–441, 23 June 2016

Books in brief: Tide: The Science and Lore of the Greatest Force on Earth, 534: 7608, 473, 23 June 2016

News & Views: An extended yardstick for climate variability, 534: 7609, 626–628, 30 June 2016

Articles: The Asian monsoon over the past 640,000 years and ice age terminations, 534: 7609, 640–646, 30 June 2016 亚洲季风的一个640,000记录: 以前的亚洲季风记录显示,在几十万年的时间里存在周期性变化,这种变化可能是由日照的变化驱动的,而后者则是由地球轨道的岁差造成的。Hai Cheng及同事现在提供了一个来自中国洞穴样本的洞穴堆积物记录,它将早期记录延伸到了距今640,000年前,接近铀/钍测年的最大可能年龄。这一惊人记录证实,特征性的 “100,000-年”冰期周期相应于岁差周期的一个整数倍(4倍或5),而且日照影响季风强度在千年尺度上的变化。

Seven Days: Ozone hole shows signs of healing, 535: 7610, 12–13, 7 July 2016

Seven Days: Greenland ice loss, 535: 7612, 328–329, 21 July 2016

News in Focus: Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet, 535: 7612, 336, 21 July 2016

Research Highlights: Ancient sea floor preserved, 536: 7616, 253, 18 August 2016

Seven Days: Chinese sea lab, 536: 7616, 254–255, 18 August 2016

Letters: An early geodynamo driven by exsolution of mantle components from Earth's core, 536: 7616, 326–328, 18 August 2016  地球早期磁场的形成: James Badro等人的实验证明, 在足够高的温度下,氧化镁可以熔化为形成地核的金属熔体。他们运用地核形成模型证明,地球形成时期的高温事件,比如导致月球形成的大碰撞,可能为早期地核带去了大量的镁。地核冷却之后,活跃的氧化镁在出溶过程中产生的重力势能足以为早期的地球发电机提供能量,并生成地球的古磁场。

Research Highlights: Rare mineral found on Earth, 537: 7618, 10–11, 1 September 2016

News & Views: Southern Ocean freshened by sea ice, 537: 7618, 40–41, 1 September 2016

Letters: Sea-ice transport driving Southern Ocean salinity and its recent trends, 537: 7618, 89–92, 1 September 2016(地球)南极海冰淡化大洋:过去几十年来,南冰洋发生了淡化,但人们尚不清楚其发生机制。Alex Haumann及同事结合了多种类型的证据,虽然基础数据集仍存在很大的不确定因素,但他们发现,南极海岸形成的海冰北移可以在很大程度上解释观察到的淡化现象。

News & Views: Extraordinary world, 537: 7620, 310–311, 15 September 2016

Letters: A nucleosynthetic origin for the Earth's anomalous 142Nd composition, 537: 7620, 394-398, 15 September 2016

Letters: Primitive Solar System materials and Earth share a common initial 142Nd abundance, 537: 7620, 399-402, 15 September 2016

Seven Days: Arctic ice cover hits second-lowest level, 537: 7621, 454-455, 22 September 2016

News & Views: Evidence of life in Earth's oldest rocks, 537: 7621, 500–501, 22 September 2016

Letters: Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures, 537: 7621, 535–538, 22 September 2016 远古地球的生命迹象:叠层石是微生物在浅海地区分层生长形成的沉积物。化石叠层石是地球生命的最早证据之一。Allen Nutman及同事描述了约37亿年前的变质叠层石,它位于现今的格陵兰岛,比此前已知最古老的化石还要早两亿年,因此以超出第二名不少的年龄成为了地球上最古老的化石。虽然一些基于同位素地球化学的间接证据表明,地球生命的起源时间甚至可能比这更早,但这篇有关最古老化石的报告或许仍将引起争议。

Seven Days: Arctic science, 538: 7623, 10–11, 6 October 2016

New in paperback: Richter's scale: measure of an earthquake, measure of a man, 538: 7623, 34–40, 6 October 2016

News & Views: Megafloods downsized, 538: 7624, 174–175, 13 October 2016

Letters: Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years, 538: 7624, 226–228, 13 October 2016    全球表面温度:过去与现在:尽管存在许多有关历史气候变异的地球化学记录,但到目前为止仍缺乏对全球平均表面温度(GAST)的大范围重建。Carolyn Snyder使用海洋表面温度重建网络,重建了过去200万年间的GAST 结果表明,直到120万年前左右,全球都在持续降温,随后稳定下来;在过去80万年间,全球温度和大气温室气体都存在紧密耦合。结合大气二氧化碳记录,重建结果表明,即使在大气二氧化碳浓度稳定在当前水平的情况下,未来也将变暖3-7摄氏度。

Letters: Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods, 538: 7624, 229–232, 13 October 2016

Comment: Bridge the planetary divide, 539: 7627, 25–27, 3 November 2016

Coming Up: The United States launches GOES-R, 539: 7629, 334–335, 17 November 2016

Seven Days: Super satellite, 539: 7630, 472–473, 24 November 2016

Research Highlights: Gravity changes before quake hits, 540: 7631, 10, 1 December 2016

Trend Watch: Low arctic sea ice worries scientists, 540: 7631, 12–13, 1 December 2016

News in Focus: Speedy drills start hunt for oldest ice, 540: 7631, 18–19, 1 December 2016

Coming Up: The American Geophysical Union's Fall Meeting takes place, 540: 7632, 174–175, 8 December 2016

Letters: High-resolution mapping of global surface water and its long-term changes, 540: 7633, 418–422, 15 December 2016  地表水的动态变化:现有的研究已经绘制了全球地表水的分布情况,地方性和区域性的研究也已对地表水随时间推移所发生的变化进行了追踪。但直到最近,有关地表水随时间演变、方法一致的全球性定量研究都付之阙如。Jean-Fran?ois Pekel 及同事分析了300多万张地球资源卫星图片,以30米的分辨率量化了地表水在32年间的月度变化。他们发现,在这期间有将近9万平方公里的地表水消失了——主要发生在中东和中亚地区,但其它地区有新的地表水形成,面积约是已消失地表水的两倍。该研究认为,在过去几十年中驱动这种变化的主要因素是干旱、水库修建和水提取。

Research Highlights: East Antarctic ice melts from below, 540: 7634, 487, 22 December 2016

News in Focus: Europe's Galileo satellites herald new era for Earth science, 540: 7634, 493–494, 22 December 2016

366 Days: The year in science: Images of the year: Space storms, 540: 7634, 500–505, 22 December 2016

月球

Coming Up: The annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference convenes in The Woodlands, Texas, 531: 7594, 280–281, 17 March 2016

News & Views: Signs of a wandering Moon, 531: 7595, 455–456, 24 March 2016

Letters: Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen, 531: 7595, 480–484, 24 March 2016 月球的极移:Matthew Siegler及共同作者发现,通过轨道中子谱检测到的月球上的极地氢沉积有点儿神秘:氢(被认为源自水冰的存在)的空间分布与从当今月球温度所预料的结果不匹配。要对此做出解释,就可能需要了解被称为 “真正极移”(true polar wander)的现象。在这一现象中,一个固体物上的一个参照点相对于其自转轴转动。基于对极地沉积位置和对月球数字所做的一项分析,作者提出,这种偏移是因由Procellarum区域下的一个低密度热异常造成的月球 “惯性矩”的变化而发生的。Procellarum在月球历史上的早期在地质上最为活跃,这意味着月移是几十亿年前开始的,所测到的极地氢中很大一部分都是古时的,记录了水向月球系统内部的早期输送。

Letters: Origin and implications of non-radial Imbrium Sculpture on the Moon, 535: 7612, 391–394, 21 July 2016

Seven Days: Goodnight Yutu, 536: 7615, 130–131, 11 August 2016

Seven Days: Private Moonshot, 536: 7615, 130–131, 11 August 2016

News & Views: Moon churn, 538: 7624, 177, 13 October 2016

Letters: Quantifying crater production and regolith overturn on the Moon with temporal imaging, 538: 7624, 215–218, 13 October 2016 月球当前的陨石坑成坑速度:Emerson Speyerer及同事使用美国航空航天局(NASA)月球勘测轨道飞行器拍摄的14092幅时相(前后时相)图像对,量化当前月球陨石坑成坑速度。他们识别出了与新陨石坑相关的大型反射区,并认为它们是表面存在物质喷射过程的证据。他们估计,这种二次成坑过程搅动月球风化层顶部的速度比先前预计得要快很多。

Letters: Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon, 538: 7626, 487–490, 27 October 2016  月球起源的高能大碰撞模型:王昆和Stein Jacobsen报告了关于地球、月球和球粒陨石的高精度钾同位素数据,发现月岩中钾的重同位素含量显著高于地球和球粒陨石。对于这种富集情况,他们推断最有可能的一种解释是:在导致月球形成的大碰撞发生期间,在相对较高的环境压力下,硅酸盐蒸气不完全冷凝。这种条件与月球起源的高能、高角动量大碰撞模型是一致的。

Letters: Tidal evolution of the Moon from a high-obliquity, high-angular-momentum Earth, 539: 7629, 402–406, 17 November 2016   地球低倾斜度的可能原因:Matija Cuk等人表明,月球倾斜度引起的潮汐耗散可能是月球潮汐演化产生的一个重要效应,在这种情况下,月球过去的倾斜度应比目前的理论模型可解释的斜度更大。因此,他们提出了另一种潮汐演化模型:月球一开始位于赤道轨道,绕高初始自转速度、高倾斜度的地球公转 ——这是大碰撞的一种可能结果。在这一模型下,太阳对月球公转轨道的扰动自然导致了较大的月球倾斜度,并消除了地月系统的角动量。

日食和月食

Seven Days: ‘Ring of fire’ eclipse glows in African sky, 537: 7619, 142–143, 8 September 2016

水星

Seven Days: Mercury transit, 533: 7602, 150–151, 12 May 2016

金星

Editorials: Destination Venus, 532, 7598, 148, 14 April 2016

News in Focus: Rescued Japanese spacecraft delivers first results from Venus, 532, 7598, 157–158, 14 April 2016

Careers: Turning point: Planet navigator, 536: 7615, 241, 11 August 2016

火星

Research Highlights: Fungus survives simulated Mars, 530: 7588, 8, 4 February 2016

Coming Up: The European Space Agency and Russia's space agency, Roscosmos, launch the trace gas orbiter to Mars, part of the ExoMars project, 531: 7593, 144–145, 10 March 2016

News in Focus: Mars launch to test collaboration between Europe and Russia, 531: 7594, 288–289, 17 March 2016

News in Focus: NASA Mars woes could delay other planetary missions, 531: 7594, 289, 17 March 2016

Letters: Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars, 531: 7594, 344–347, 17 March 2016 火星的早期地质状况:Tharsis bulge”(火星上最大的火山构造中心)的形成开始于距今超过37亿年前诺亚时期 (Noachian epoch)。与此相关的质量、能量的巨大转移及挥发物从火星地幔的释放对该星球之后的演化都有影响。Sylvain Bouley等人计算了在Tharsis火山区造成真正极移(polar wander)之前火星的转动数字和其表面拓扑——真正极移发生时该星球的自转轴将是由北半球和南半球之间的高程差控制的。他们的结果表明Tharsis形成的时间相对较晚,大约与峡谷网络是同一时间形成的,这说明在火山气体喷发与表面液态水的稳定性之间存在一个因果关系。

Research Highlights: Martian water on the boil, 533: 7601, 11, 5 May 2016

Seven Days: Mission Mars, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

Seven Days: Mars delay, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

Research Highlights: End of a Martian ice age, 534: 7605, 8, 2 June 2016

Research Highlights: Martian moons formed in situ, 535: 7610, 11, 7 July 2016

Seven Days: China set for Mars, 537: 7618, 12–13, 1 September 2016

News in Focus: Mars contamination fear could divert Curiosity rover, 537: 7619, 145–146, 8 September 2016

Trend Watch: You're going to need a bigger rocket, 538: 7623, 10–11, 6 October 2016

News in Focus: NASA rethinks approach to Mars exploration, 538: 7624, 149–150, 13 October 2016

Seven Days: All eyes on Mars, 538: 7624, 294-295, 20 October 2016

Seven Days: Obama’s Mars plan, 538: 7624, 294-295, 20 October 2016

Correspondence: Martian dance of fiction and fact, 538: 7624, 317, 20 October 2016

Editorials: Crashing success, 538: 7626, 427-428, 27 October 2016

Seven Days: Mars lander site, 538: 7626, 432-433, 27 October 2016

News in Focus: Computing glitch may have doomed Mars lander, 538: 7626, 435-436, 27 October 2016

Seven Days: Mars crash site, 539: 7627, 10–11, 3 November 2016

Editorials: Home from home, 539: 7629, 330, 17 November 2016

Seven Days: Beagle 2 worked, 539: 7629, 334–335, 17 November 2016

Seven Days: Negative altitude, 540: 7631, 12–13, 1 December 2016

Seven Days: Europe to Mars, 540: 7632, 174–175, 8 December 2016

News in Focus: Europe's first Mars rover gets funding — despite crash of test craft, 540: 7632, 177–178, 8 December 2016

Seven Days: Methane problem, 540: 7633, 320–321, 15 December 2016

木星

News in Focus: NASA's Juno spacecraft prepares to probe Jupiter's mysteries, 534: 7609, 599–600, 30 June 2016

Seven Days: Juno finds Jupiter, 535: 7610, 12–13, 7 July 2016

Letters: Heating of Jupiter's upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot, 536: 7615, 190–192, , 11 August 2016

Seven Days: Europa's water jets, 537: 7622, 590–591, 29 September 2016

Seven Days: JUNO trouble, 538: 7626, 432-433, 27 October 2016

土星

Coming Up: Cassini probe has its only chance to measure atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

Research Highlights: Methane-filled canyons on Titan, 536: 7616, 253, 18 August 2016

Research Highlights: Ocean on another of Saturn's moons, 538: 7624, 143, 13 October 2016

小行星

Letters: Super-catastrophic disruption of asteroids at small perihelion distances, 530: 7590, 303–306, 18 February 2016

Research Highlights: A peek at Pluto's rich landscapes, 531: 7595, 416, 24 March 2016

Seven Days: Hydrogen on Ceres, 531: 7596, 554-555, 31 March 2016

Research Highlights: Solar wind hits Pluto hard, 533: 7602, 148, 12 May 2016

News & Views: Pluto's polygons explained, 534: 7605, 40–41, 2 June 2016

Letters: Vigorous convection as the explanation for Pluto's polygonal terrain, 534: 7605, 79–81, 2 June 2016(小行星)冥王星上的史波尼克平原本期封面所示为 NASA 新视野号飞船所看到的冥王星上史波尼克平原 (Sputnik Planum)新视野号示了冥王星表面上吸引人的细节情况,包括被称为史波尼克平原的一个填满冰的巨大盆地,它在冥王星的地质活动中居中心地位。史波尼克平原 表面(大部分由氮冰构成)很大部分被分成不规则的、直径几十公里的多边形,其中心比边缘高出几十米。本期Nature上的两篇论文分新视野号摄的这一多边形地域的图像。两篇论文都得出结论认为它在不断通过对流重新露出表面,但所得到的关于这一过程的模型却不同。Alexander Trowbridge 等人报告了一个参数化的对流模型,在其中氮冰强烈对流,其厚度有十公里或更大,形成时间约有100万年。William McKinnon等人(来自新视野号)显示, 在几公里厚的一层固态氮中发生的被称sluggish lid的对流翻转(convective overturn)既能解释这些多边形的存在,也能解释它们为什么那么宽。

Letters: Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto's geological vigour, 534: 7605, 82–85, 2 June 2016

Seven Days: Earth's pet rock, 534: 7608, 440–441, 23 June 2016

Seven Days: Dawn stays put, 535: 7610, 12–13, 7 July 2016

Seven Days: Dwarf planet find, 535: 7611, 204–205, 14 July 2016

Letters: Bright carbonate deposits as evidence of aqueous alteration on (1) Ceres, 536: 7614, 54–57, 4 August 2016

Corrigendum: Convection in a volatile nitrogen-ice-rich layer drives Pluto's geological vigour, 537: 7618, 122, 1 September 2016

Seven Days: Asteroid mission, 537: 7620, 284–285, 15 September 2016

Letters: A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape, 537: 7621, 515–517, 22 September 2016 谷神星的地球物理学观察:谷神星是距离太阳最近的矮行星,运行轨道位于火星和木星之间,本文基于黎明号(Dawn)太空探测器获取的无线电追踪信息和机载图像数据,展示了对谷神星的地球物理学观察结果。引力和形状测量提供了此前的远程观测中无法获得的一个关键参数——转动惯量。观察显示,谷神星呈流体静力学平衡,其转动惯量的归一化均值据推测为0.37。黎明号获取的数据与本文所做的分析建立了表征矮行星内部结构的初步框架。谷神星呈分层结构,岩石内核外包裹着高度不稳定的冰壳。

News in Focus: Icy heart could be key to Pluto's strange geology, 538: 7626, 439, 27 October 2016

Letters: The formation of Charon's red poles from seasonally cold-trapped volatiles, 539: 7627, 65–68, 3 November 2016  卡戎极冠新发现:Will Grundy及同事报告了新视野号拍摄到的冥王星最大卫星卡戎被冥王星照照亮的照片,以及新视野号在飞掠阶段所拍的照片,这些照片显示了经度跨度较大的北极极冠。他们对卡戎表面的热环境进行了建模,模型结果与推测相符:卡戎北极极冠不同寻常的暗红色是由碳氢化合物引起的,在冬季,这些气体会从冥王星的逃逸大气中被冷圈闭。

News & Views: Pluto's telltale heart, 540: 7631, 42–43, 1 December 2016

Letters: Observed glacier and volatile distribution on Pluto from atmosphere–topography processes, 540: 7631, 86–89, 1 December 2016 模拟冥王星挥发物的输运:Tanguy BertrandFrancois Forget开发了一个冥王星挥发物输运模型,并用它模拟了冥王星氮气、甲烷和一氧化碳在上万个地球年间的演变。根据该模型预测,氮冰会在低纬度最深的盆地中积聚,此外,人们观察到的冥王星大气气压的三倍上升始于1988年。这意味着大气-地形过程可以解释著名的赤道氮冰冰原史波尼克平原(Sputnik Planitia)的起源。这是本期《自然》中四篇关于史波尼克平原地质学的论文之一。在新闻与评论板块中,Amy Barr探讨了这些最新发现的背景。

Letters: Reorientation and faulting of Pluto due to volatile loading within Sputnik Planitia, 540: 7631, 90–93, 1 December 2016

Letters: Reorientation of Sputnik Planitia implies a subsurface ocean on Pluto, 540: 7631, 94–96, 1 December 2016

Letters: The rapid formation of Sputnik Planitia early in Pluto's history, 540: 7631, 97–99, 1 December 2016

Research Highlights: Where Ceres hides its water, 540: 7634, 487, 22 December 2016

News & Views: Frozen in darkness, 540: 7634, 534, 22 December 2016

彗星

Letters: Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, 529: 7586, 368–372, 21 January 2016

Letters: A homogeneous nucleus for comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from its gravity field, 530: 7588, 63–65: 4 February 2016

Seven Days: Philae's long sleep, 530: 7590, 258–259, 18 February 2016

Letters: Fission and reconfiguration of bilobate comets as revealed by 67P/Churyumov– Gerasimenko, 534: 7607, 352–355, 16 June 2016  彗星67P彗核的两叶分而不离: “罗塞塔”探测器对彗星67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P)的观测显示了一个分成两叶的彗核,其结构表明,两部分在其分别形成之后在低速下被聚集在一起。在这篇论文中,Daniel Scheeres及同事发表了对67P的彗核的结构和动态所做的一项模拟研究。他们显示,“升华矩” (sublimation torques)可能造成67P的彗核向上旋转,形成在其脖子上所观测到的大裂缝。这些裂缝很可能会传播,最终将彗核一分为二,但被分开的两叶将不能够逃离彼此,最终将再次合并。

Seven Days: Rosetta's final move, 535: 7610, 12–13, 7 July 2016

Seven Days: Farewell Philae, 536: 7614, 10–11, 4 August 2016

Research Highlights: Gentle birth of a comet, 536: 7615, 128, 11 August 2016

News & Views: Cometary dust under the microscope, 537: 7618, 37–38, 1 September 2016

Letters: Aggregate dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, 537: 7618, 73–75, 1 September 2016 彗星尘埃分析:Mark Bentley等人报告了对67P/丘留莫夫-格拉西缅科彗星尘埃颗粒的原位测量,测量结果系通过罗塞塔探测器携带的MIDAS系统获得。MIDAS是首个升入太空的原子力显微镜。研究者发现,尘埃颗粒是由更小的细长颗粒聚合组成的,其结构大小不一,说明发生了分层聚合。尘埃颗粒有许多不同形态,从致密的单颗粒到与球粒状多孔行星际尘粒类似的大型多孔聚合颗粒不等,表明后者可能来自彗星。

Seven Days: Lost Philae found, 537: 7619, 142–143, 8 September 2016

Coming Up: The European Space Agency's Rosetta craft crash-lands, 537: 7621, 455-455, 22 September 2016

Seven Days: Rosetta rests, 538: 7623, 10–11, 6 October 2016

News in Focus: Mission accomplished: Rosetta crashes into comet, 538: 7623, 13–14, 6 October 2016

Letters: High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko, 538: 7623, 72–74, 6 October 2016

Seven Days: Comet hunter dies, 538: 7624, 294-295, 20 October 2016

流星和陨星

News in Focus: France launches massive meteor-spotting network, 534: 7607, 304–305, 16 June 2016

Coming Up: The annual Perseids meteor shower reaches its peak, 536: 7614, 10–11, 4 August 2016

News in Focus: Rock core from dinosaur-killing impact reveals how enormous craters form, 539: 7630, 478, 24 November 2016

太阳系

News in Focus: Evidence grows for giant planet on fringes of Solar System, 529: 7586, 266–267, 21 January 2016

Features: On the hunt for a mystery planet, 531: 7594, 290–293, 17 March 2016

Research Highlights: Cassini aids hunt for Planet Nine, 531: 7595, 417, 24 March 2016

Seven Days: New moon rises over Makemake, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

Research Highlights: Planet 9 may glow from within, 533: 7602, 149, 12 May 2016

Coming Up: The American Astronomical Society's planetary-sciences division and the European Planetary Science Congress meet, 538: 7624, 144–145, 13 October 2016

外星行星

Letters: A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion, 529: 7584, 59–62, 7 January 2016

News in Focus: Rebooted Kepler spacecraft hauls in the planets, 529: 7585, 139, 14 January 2016

Research Highlights: Widest-known planetary orbit, 530: 7588, 9, 4 February 2016

News & Views: Exoplanets hidden in the gaps, 530: 7589, 169–170, 11 February 2016

Features: The truth about exoplanets, 530: 7590, 272–274, 18 February 2016

Research Highlights: First super-Earth atmosphere, 530: 7591, 385, 25 February 2016

Research Highlights: Protoplanet imaged in infancy, 531: 7596, 552, 31 March 2016

Seven Days: Kepler scare, 532, 7598, 152, 14 April 2016

Letters: A map of the large day–night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet, 532, 7598, 207–209, 14 April 2016   一个超级地球上的日夜:超级地球 55 Cancri e 是我们附近的一颗太阳系外行星,直径不到地球直径的两倍,但质量却大约是地球质量的八倍。“55 Cancri e是研究对我们太阳系来说属于未知的一类太阳系外行星之性质的最佳天体之一:以前对超级地球的观测工作只产生了没有特征的光谱。在这项研究中,Brice-Olivier Demory等人报告了“55 Cancri e在穿越其主星时的一个纵向热亮度图 (longitudinal thermal brightness map)。该图显示了强烈的白天-夜间温度对比,表明它的热再分配效率低,这说明该行星要么没有大气层,要么有一个从光学上来说很厚的大气层,热量再循环被限于其白天一边。

Seven Days: New worlds galore, 533: 7603, 296–297, 19 May 2016

Letters: A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets, 533: 7604, 509–512, 26 May 2016

Letters: Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, 533: 7602, 221–224, 12 May 2016  需要关注的三个行星:理论预测,类地或石质行星可能在绕质量最小的恒星运行。这篇论文报告了由三个地球大小的行星组成的一个系统的探测,这三个行星在穿越一个距离我们非常近(12差距)冷矮星,其质量只有太阳质量的8%这三个行星在亮度上与金星和地球相似,特别适合进行详细的大气表征研究。

Letters: A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5–10-million-year-old star, 534: 7609, 658–661, 30 June 2016

Letters: A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star, 534: 7609, 662–666, 30 June 2016

Research Highlights: Triple star hosts stable planet, 535: 7611, 202, 14 July 2016

News & Views: Variable snow lines affect planet formation, 535: 7611, 237–238, 14 July 2016

Letters: Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst, 535: 7611, 258–261, 14 July 2016 一个原恒星雪线的直接成像:一个原行星盘中的雪线是指与原恒星的距离,在这个距离上某种挥发性气体会凝结。在盘演变中尤为重要的是水的雪线,因为水-冰决定尘埃和小行星体凝聚的效率以及彗星、冰质巨型行星和气体巨型行星的核心是否能够形成。Lucas Cieza等人报告了对V883 Ori周围的盘所做的长基线观测。V883 Ori是一个原恒星,有1.3个太阳质量那么大,正在发生一次吸积爆发。这些数据提供了一个原行星盘的水雪线的第一个直接图像,说明它在一次原恒星爆发过程中向外移动了,这对我们了解行星系统(如我们自己的地球)的形成有意义。

Research Highlights: Revived telescope finds 104 planets, 535: 7613, 468, 28 July 2016

News in Focus: Nearby star hosts planet, 536: 7617, 381–382, 25 August 2016

News & Views: Earth-like planet around Sun's neighbour, 536: 7617, 408–409, 25 August 2016

Letters: A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri, 536: 7617, 437–440, 25 August 2016 封面故事:比邻之星:本期封面是比邻星(Proxima Centauri)及其行星比邻星 b的艺术再现,图中最亮的两颗恒星分别是半人马座阿尔法星AB。研究人员分析了此前用欧洲南方天文台(ESO)设备收集的多普勒数据,发现有一颗最小只有1.3倍地球质量的小行星围绕比邻星(距太阳最近的恒星)运行。该行星被称作比邻星b,接近比邻星轨道,公转周期约为11.2天。比邻星 b的平衡温度可使水在其表面保持液态,但目前其表面是否存在水、水的成分为何尚不清楚;比邻星 bX射线通量高于地球,因此随着时间推移,可能会形成与地球大气截然不同的大气层。发现这颗围绕附近恒星运转、温暖的类地行星为人们提供了进一步对其表征的机会,随着科技的进步,人们还能通过直接成像和高分辨率光谱学技术来实现这一点。

Letters: A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c, 537: 7618, 69–72, 1 September 2016 系外行星大气层成分:近期,天文学家在临近地球的超低温矮星TRAPPIST-1的宜居带附近发现了三颗地球大小的系外行星,本文报告了哈勃天文望远镜对其中靠里两颗的观察。天文学家在201654TRAPPIST-1 b c同时凌日时获得了它们的联合透射光谱。联合光谱中缺少的特征有效地排除了它们拥有无云、以氢气为主的大气层的可能性,但它们仍可能拥有一系列其它类型的大气层,如主要由无云水蒸气组成的大气层和类似金星的大气层。

News & Views: Migration of giants, 537: 7621, 496–497, 22 September 2016

Research Highlights: Small stars host water worlds, 539: 7627, 8, 3 November 2016

Feature: Ten people who mattered this year: Guillem Anglada-Escudé: planet hunter, 540: 7634, 507–515, 22 December 2016

天体生物学

Seven Days: ET search starts, 532: 7597, 10–11, 7 April 2016

Coming Up: The European Space Agency hosts the Living Planet Symposium on Earth observation, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

News in Focus: Planet hunters seek new ways to detect alien life, 535: 7613, 474-475, 28 July 2016

恒星

News & Views: Why black holes pulse brightly, 529: 7584, 28–29, 7 January 2016

Letters: Repetitive patterns in rapid optical variations in the nearby black-hole binary V404 Cygni, 529: 7584, 54–58, 7 January 2016 一个黑洞在可见光范围的猛烈变化:对V404 Cygni (一个X射线瞬态源,包含有九个太阳质量大的一个黑洞和一个伴星)显示,时间尺度从100秒到2.5小时的光学振荡会以至少比以前所认为的慢10倍的物质吸积速度发生,说明吸积速度并不是诱导 “内盘” (inner-disk)不稳定性的关键参数。作者提出,拥有一个长的轨道周期是关键条件,因为该盘的靠外部分所具有的表面密度太低,无法维持向该盘靠内部分的持续性物质吸积。持续性吸积的缺失(而非实际吸积速度)是造成长周期系统猛烈振荡的关键因素。

Letters: Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars, 529: 7585, 181–184, 14 January 2016

Research Highlights: Brightest-ever supernova, 529: 7586, 259, 21 January 2016

Letters: A prevalence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass stars, 529: 7586, 364–367, 21 January 2016

Research Highlights: Turbulence roils luminous galaxy, 529: 7587, 440, 28 January 2016

Letters: A repeating fast radio burst, 531: 7593, 202–205, 10 March 2016

Letters: Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni, 531: 7594, 341–343, 17 March 2016

Coming Up: The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium holds a meeting in Paris, 531: 7596, 554-555, 31 March 2016

Letters: R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy, 531: 7596, 610-613, 31 March 2016

Research Highlights: White dwarf's weird atmosphere, 532: 7597, 8–9, 7 April 2016

News & Views: Supernovae in the neighbourhood, 532: 7597, 40–41, 7 April 2016

Letter: Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe, 532: 7597, 69–72, 7 April 2016 附近超新星的一个同位素记录:20年前人们提出,附近超新星爆炸有可能通过碎片的直接沉降或通过宇宙射线在大气中的蜕变以 “地质同位素异常”的形式在地球上留下它们的印记。这一观点随铁-60作为一个超新星指示物在深海铁锰结壳中的发现已被证明。本期Nature上的两篇论文为这一画面增添了更多细节,并且提出,在过去几百万年间、在与我们相距几百光年的距离内曾有多个超新星。Anton Wallner等人报告,深海铁-60信号是全球性的,时间范围大,来源于多次星际事件。他们的结果显示 ,铁-60从星际空间向地球上的流入发生在距今170万年-320万年与650万年-870万年之间。Dieter Breitschwerdt等人报告了对这些超新星前体最有可能的轨迹和质量、以及它们爆炸时间和爆炸地点的计算结果。铁-60信号来自距离在90100秒差距的两个超新星。最近的一次爆炸出现在距今230万年前,第二个出现在大约150万年前,其质量分别为9.2个和8.8个太阳质量。

Letter: The locations of recent supernovae near the Sun from modelling 60Fe transport, 532: 7597, 73–76, 7 April 2016

Letters: No Sun-like dynamo on the active star ζ Andromedae from starspot asymmetry, 533: 7602, 217–220, 12 May 2016

Research Highlights: Model predicts neutron-star signal, 533: 7603, 294–295, 19 May 2016

News & Views: Illuminating brown dwarfs, 533: 7603, 330–331, 19 May 2016

Letters: An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf, 533: 7603, 366–368, , 19 May 2016  一个吸积中的白矮星双星系统:这篇论文报告了利用“甚大天文望远镜”(由欧洲南方天文台经营)上的X-Shooter仪器对被称为J1433的一个吸积中的白矮星双星系统同时用可见光和红外线进行的时间分辨光谱研究结果。所取得的光谱显示了一个被照亮的“substellar donor的存在,它的质量为0.055±0.008个太阳质量,平均光谱类型(average spectral type)L1,白天一侧和夜晚一侧由照射诱导产生的平均温差为57K。这些观测结果为关于被照射的亚恒星天体(这类天体包括热木星和短周期褐矮星双星)的大气层及内部情况的模型提供了一个经验基准。

Letters: Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni, 534: 7605, 75–78, 2 June 2016

News & Views: Dynamo theory questioned, 535: 7613, 500–501, 28 July 2016

Letters: Solar-type dynamo behaviour in fully convective stars without a tachocline, 535: 7613, 526–528, 28 July 2016 完全对流恒星中的太阳型发电机恒星的X射线活动与其自转之间的关系是反映恒星发电机行为的一个明确的间接参数。Nicholas Wright Jeremy Drake对四颗完全对流恒星的观测表明,尽管内部结构不同,其X射线活动与自转的关系仍与部分对流恒星(比如太阳)相似。这些结果表明,同一种发电机制对两种类型的恒星都发挥作用,尽管它们的内部差别相当大。

Research Highlights: Carbon monoxide in large-star disks, 537: 7619, 140, 8 September 2016

Letters: A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star, 537: 7620, 374-377, 15 September 2016 不同寻常的白矮星:四十多年来,AR Scorpii (AR Sco)一直被认为是一颗短周期变星,并被归类为盾牌座 δ 型变星,这是一种常见的周期变星类型。新的观测结果表明,AR Sco是一个至今为止独一无二的系统:这个白矮星/冷星双星系统释放涵盖从X射线到射电波的整个电磁频谱的剧烈脉冲。AR Sco的光学通量可在仅仅30秒内增加3倍之多,其脉冲在无线电频率即可探测到。这些特征反映了磁白矮星在1000万年的时间尺度上自转减缓。尽管脉冲受白矮星自转驱动,但在很大程度上仍然来源于冷星。

Letters: The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation, 537: 7622, 649–651, 29 September 2016(恒星)经典新星爆发前后:新星在千年的爆发间隔之间是什么样的?经典新星V1213 Cen (Nova Centauri 2009)20095月首次被探测到。Przemek Mróz等人报告了始于2016年爆发之前对V1213 Cen的长期观察,包括甚大望远镜(Very Large Telescope)20054月以来的意外观察。在爆发之前,V1213 Cen表现为质量迁移率较低的矮新星。爆后新星比爆前新星的最低亮度高两个数量级,且没有矮新星行为的痕迹,这表明新星爆发使得质量迁移率显著提高。目前,V1213 Cen正渐渐衰落,根据休眠理论的预测,在再次转变为矮新星前的几十年内它仍将保持明亮。

Research Highlights: Magnetism drives star birth, 538: 7623, 8, 6 October 2016

Research Highlights: Strange fading star probed, 538: 7624, 143, 13 October 2016

Research Highlights: Two stars have three disks, 538: 7624, 292, 20 October 2016

News & Views: Unexpected X-ray flares, 538: 7624, 321-322, 20 October 2016

Letters: Ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies, 538: 7624, 356–358, 20 October 2016 不同寻常的闪光X射线源:通过研究70个周边星系的历史X射线数据,研究者在球状星团或椭圆母星系的超致密矮伴星中发现了两个闪光源,一个闪光了一次,另一个闪光了五次。在不闪光时,它们看起来是正常的吸积中子星或黑洞X射线双星。与磁星和其它光度相似且反复闪光的星体不同,它们位于古老的星族中。

News & Views: Birth of stellar siblings, 538: 7626, 466-467, 27 October 2016

Letters: A triple protostar system formed via fragmentation of a gravitationally unstable disk, 538: 7626, 483–486, 27 October 2016   三星系统的引力不稳定性:多星系统源自分子云的早期分裂,在宇宙中十分常见。John Tobin及同事报告了对原恒星三星系统L1448 IRS3B的观测结果,这一系统正处在恒星形成的早期阶段,因此是搜寻尘埃盘分裂证据的理想对象。他们在三星系统中发现了尘埃和分子气体释放,说明三颗原恒星周围环绕着漩涡结构的尘埃盘。他们的发现表明,该尘埃盘极易发生分裂,这支持原恒星盘引力不稳定性导致伴星形成的假说。

Research Highlights: Homing in on a fast radio burst, 539: 7630, 470, 24 November 2016

Books and Arts: Women who read the stars, 539: 7630, 491–492, 24 November 2016

Seven Days: Star names, 540: 7631, 12–13, 1 December 2016

Letters: Resolved images of a protostellar outflow driven by an extended disk wind, 540: 7633, 406–409, 15 December 2016  年轻恒星喷流气体:阿塔卡玛大型毫米及亚毫米波阵列望远镜(ALMA)在高角分辨率下拍到了年轻的太阳型原恒星TMC1A,为与这类系统相关的分子气体外流提供了新数据。在距中心原恒星半径为25个天文单位的一片区域内,Per Bjerkeli 等人观察到了一氧化碳气体喷流,他们的数据还表明该盘面的延伸带没有角动量。这些发现符合“盘风”模型,在该模型下,外流的气体是由开普勒盘的延伸盘风引起的。

星团

News & Views: The mystery of globular clusters, 529: 7587, 473–474, 28 January 2016

Letters: Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters, 529: 7587, 502–504, 28 January 2016  对成星过程的再认识:哈勃太空望远镜对麦哲伦云中三个年龄为10亿—20亿年的 “年轻” 质量星团所做观测,显示了在其最初形成阶段之后几亿年发生的类似星爆的成星过程的明确证据。更年轻恒星的空间分布表明,它们可能源自被这些星团在其主星系盘中绕轨道运转时所吸积的环境气体云,这些气体云为成星过程的持续进行提供了充足的气体来源。星团中的恒星被认为主要是在一次星爆中从由分子气体组成的一个共同前体云形成的。这些新的观测结果也许能够解释为什么大质量的、古老的 “球形”星团似乎经常包含多个星族。

星云

Coming Up: Water across the Universe and its origins will be discussed, 532: 7597, 10–11, 7 April 2016

Research Highlights: Sugars made in simulated space, 532, 7598, 151, 14 April 2016

News & Views: Violent emissions of newborn stars, 537: 7619, 174–175, 8 September 2016

Letters: Compression and ablation of the photo-irradiated molecular cloud the Orion Bar, 537: 7619, 207–209, 8 September 2016 观测猎户座栅栏分子云:猎户座星云中的猎户座栅栏(Orion Bar) 让天文学家得以从边缘清晰地观测分子云的表面,以及原子气体向分子气体的相关过渡。通过大型ALMA射电望远镜获得的一角秒分辨率毫米波图像显示,该区域存在分散的高密度子结构、光消融气体流和不稳定性高峰,表明分子云边缘一直受到向该分子云扩张的高压波的压缩,这与静力平衡模型的预测相反。

银河系

Research Highlights: Milky Way's bulging waistline, 531: 7594, 279, 17 March 2016

Letters: Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre, 531: 7595, 476–479, 24 March 2016 银河系中心的粒子加速:来自“HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System) Collaboration”的这篇论文,发表了以 “弧分角分辨率”获得的对银河系中心区域所做的深度伽马射线观测结果,这些结果显示了在我们银河系中心10秒差距以内存在被加速到能量至少为几个PeV (1 PeV = 1015 电子伏特)的粒子的示踪物。这一发现与以前所观测到的银河系PeV宇宙射线是一致的,它要求存在能够将粒子加速到如此极端能量的一个源。作者认为,这个源是超大质量黑洞Sagittarius A*。虽然由于Sagittarius A*而产生的粒子加速的当前速度不足以为银河系宇宙射线提供实质性贡献,但它却有可能比过去更活跃。

News in Focus: Milky Way mapper: 6 ways the Gaia spacecraft will change astronomy, 537: 7620, 292–293, 15 September 2016

Seven Days: Gaia reveals, 537: 7621, 454-455, 22 September 2016

News in Focus: Billion-star map unveiled, 537: 7621, 458-459, 22 September 2016

Research Highlights: Gaia charts one billion stars, 540: 7633, 319, 15 December 2016

河外星系

Research Highlights: Turbulence roils luminous galaxy, 529: 7587, 440, 28 January 2016

News & Views: Home of a fast radio burst, 530: 7591, 427–428, 25 February 2016

Letters: The host galaxy of a fast radio burst, 530: 7591, 453–456, 25 February 2016  一个快速射电暴的位置被确定:这篇论文报告了通过Parkes射电望远镜对一个快速射电暴、即FRB 150418的发现。一项多波长、多望远镜跟踪研究在最初爆发之后两小时检测到一个射电瞬态,持续了大约六天才衰减至静止水平。作者将这个衰减源理解为FRB的余晖。快速射电暴是持续仅仅几毫秒的瞬态射电脉冲,以前一直没有可能定位这样一个爆发和确定一个红移值。FRB 150418的源被发现是红移值为0.492的一个椭圆星系。

News & Views: Cosmic rays beyond the knees, 531: 7592, 43–44, 3 March 2016

Letters: A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations, 531: 7592, 70–73, 3 March 2016  宇宙射线的物质组成:Stijn Buitink等人报告了在10171017.5电子伏特的能量范围内对宇宙射线的物质组成所做的研究,其数据来自LOFAR射电望远镜对大气中由宇宙射线引发的次级粒子级联(空气簇射)的测量结果。他们发现了一个混合组成,其中轻质量部分大约占80%。除非河外星系宇宙射线成分变得显著低于1017.5电子伏特,否则这些发现则表示在这一能量范围内存在另一个居支配地位的银河系成分。

Research Highlights: Black-hole disk launches jet, 532, 7598, 150, 14 April 2016

Research Highlights: Spinning black holes align, 532: 7599, 284, 21 April 2016

Letters: A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core, 532: 7599, 340–342, 21 April 2016  一个孤立星系中的一个超大质量黑洞:椭圆星系NGC 1600虽然与一组较暗的星系有松散的关系,但一般被认为是一个孤立的星系。Jens Thomas等人报告了在NGC 1600中心一个有170亿个太阳质量大的巨大黑洞的发现,这是在星系密集度最高区域以外的一个环境中发现的第一个这么大的黑洞。作者提出将这个黑洞作为用Event Horizon Telescope望远镜来研究广义相对论的一个候选目标。该望远镜与世界各地九个射电望远镜相连,计划于2017年开始运行。

Research Highlights: Dwarf dark galaxy leaves smudge, 532: 7600, 416, 28 April 2016

Letters: Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources, 533: 7601, 64–67, 5 May 2016

Research Highlights: Black hole weighed with precision, 533: 7603, 294–295, 19 May 2016

News & Views: How black holes restrain old galaxies, 533: 7604, 473–474, 26 May 2016

Letters: Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds, 533: 7604, 504–508, 26 May 2016  名为“红色间歇喷泉”的星系抑制成星过程: Edmond Cheung等人描述了他们称之为 “红色间歇喷泉”的一类以前人们不知道的星系,其中Akira是一个典型例子,它是驱动一股电离的外流风 (outflowing wind)的一个安静的 “红色和死亡的” (red and dead) 椭圆形星系。很少或没有正在发生的成星过程的安静星系普遍存在,其没有任何特征的类球形结构与螺旋星系中多变的成星结构形成对比。一定存在某种未知机制将来自恒星物质损失或合并的气体除去或加热,否则这些气体将会冷却形成恒星。Edmond Cheung等人报告了拥有低亮度活动星系核的典型安静星系内 “中央驱动的风” (centrally driven winds)的存在。这些星系出人意料地普遍,在质量为200亿个太阳质量或更大的星系中所占比例高达10%。作者猜测,对Akira来说,能量输入足以抑制成星。同时他们还提出,这样的“红色间歇喷泉”也许代表着安静星系维持其安静状态的方式。

Letters: Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole, 534: 7606, 218–221, 9 June 2016

Features: Mystery in the Heavens, 534: 7609, 610–612, 30 June 2016

Letters: Relativistic reverberation in the accretion flow of a tidal disruption event, 535: 7612, 388–390, 21 July 2016 一个曾经休眠的黑洞周围的空间-时间:首次于2011328日检测到的潮汐式瓦解事件Swift J1644+57被认为是一个恒星正在被一个曾经休眠的黑洞吞噬所产生的一个后果。在这篇论文中,Erin Kara等人报告了对相对论X-射线回声或回响所做的观测。这些回声或回响来自从Swift J1644+57 中的内吸积流” (inner accretion flow)反射出的发生了引力红移的Ka 光子。作者估计该黑洞的质量为几百万个太阳质量,说明吸积速度至少是Eddington limit10倍。这些观测结果并不支持以前的解释,后者认为X-射线来自一个喷射流的相对论运动区域。

Letters: Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback, 535: 7613, 523–525, 28 July 2016

Research Highlights: How black hole obscures itself, 538: 7623, 9, 6 October 2016

Seven Days: Galaxy glut, 538: 7624, 294-295, 20 October 2016

News & Views: A black hole changes its feeding habits, 540: 7631, 48–49, 1 December 2016

大尺度宇宙

Books and Arts: Topology quest, 530: 7589, 158–159, 11 February 2016

News & Views: Rare data from a lost satellite, 535: 7610, 40–41, 7 July 2016

Letters: The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster, 535: 7610, 117–121, 7 July 2016 英仙座星系团内气体的安静流动:“Hitomi合作项目”报告了对英仙座星系团(天空中最亮的发射X-射线的星系团)的核心所做的X-射线观测。这样的星系团一般由几十个到几千个被引力集中到一起的星系组成,是被既作为小规模宇宙学、又作为大规模天体物理过程的模型来研究的。他们的数据显示了一个相当安静的大气层,其中的气体速度非常慢,在距中心核(central nucleus) 30–60千秒差距的距离处具有一个大约164千米/秒的 视线速度弥散(line-of-sight velocity dispersion)

Research Highlights: Universe much richer in galaxies, 537: 7621, 453, 22 September 2016

366 Days: The year in science: Images of the year: First gleaming, 540: 7634, 500–505, 22 December 2016

宇宙暗成分

Research Highlights: Missing matter may hide in voids, 531: 7592, 11, 3 March 2016

News in Focus: Controversial dark-matter claim faces ultimate test, 532: 7597, 14–15, 7 April 2016

New in Paperback: The Cosmic Cocktail: Three Parts Dark Matter, 532: 7597, 30–36, 7 April 2016

Seven Days: Still in the dark, 535: 7613, 470-471, 28 July 2016

Research Highlights: Dark-matter evidence weakens, 536: 7617, 376–377, 25 August 2016

Outlook: The dark universe, 537: 7622, S193, 29 September 2016

Dark matter: What's the matter? 537: 7622, S194–S197, 29 September 2016

Revealing the unseen Universe, 537: 7622, S198–S199, 29 September 2016

Q&A: George Smoot: Cosmic cartographer, 537: 7622, S200, 29 September 2016

Dark energy: Staring into darkness, 537: 7622, S201–S204, 29 September 2016

Q&A: Brian Schmidt: Illuminated Universe, 537: 7622, S205, 29 September 2016

The dark universe: 4 big questions, 537: 7622, S206, 29 September 2016

News & Views: Axions exposed, 539: 7627, 40–41, 3 November 2016

Research Highlights: Dark matter may not be so clumpy, 540: 7633, 318, 15 December 2016

早期宇宙

News & Views: Rare isotopic insight into the Universe, 529: 7584, 33–34, 7 January 2016

Seven Days: Early star remnants, 529: 7585, 132–133, 14 January 2016

News & Views: Photons from dwarf galaxy zap hydrogen, 529: 7585, 159–160, 14 January 2016

Letters: Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy, 529: 7585, 178–180, 14 January 2016 对一个正在发生 “再电离”的星系的观测: 早期宇宙经历了一个被称为宇宙 “中世纪”的时期,当时物质对辐射在很大程度上是透明的,并被转变成中性气体。之后,在 “大爆炸”之后大约8亿年,它被再次电离。是哪些来源造成这次再电离的?低质量成星星系是主要对象,但难以观测。在这篇论文中,Yuri Izotov 等人发表了对一个附近的低质量成星星系(该星系可被当做正在发生再电离的星系群的一个代表)所做的远紫外观测结果。该星系(编J0925+1403)正在以大约8% “逃逸比” (escape fraction)泄漏电离辐射(ionizing radiation)。在星爆阶段发射出的光子总数足以将作为星系间介质的物质电离,而这些物质的质量大约是该星系恒星质量的40倍。

Research Highlights: Galaxy from the cosmic dark ages, 534: 7605, 8, 2 June 2016

Research Highlights: Early galaxy has wisps of oxygen, 534: 7608, 438, 23 June 2016

Research Highlights: Star-rich early galaxy clusters, 537: 7619, 141, 8 September 2016

Research Highlights: Early star-forming gas found, 537: 7622, 589, 29 September 2016

News & Views: Elemental abundances across cosmic time, 540: 7632, 205–207, 8 December 2016

Letters: A massive, quiescent, population II galaxy at a redshift of 2.1, 540: 7632, 248–251, 8 December 2016

引力

News in Focus: Hawking's latesct blak-hole paper splits physicists, 529: 7587, 448, 28 January 2016

Coming Up: A hotly anticipated announcement from the LIGO collaboration about the existence of gravitational waves, 530: 7589, 134–135, 11 February 2016

Seven Days: Gravitational waves ring out, 530: 7590, 258–259, 18 February 2016

Seven Days: LISA masses freed, 530: 7590, 258–259, 18 February 2016

News in Focus: LIGO's path to victory, 530: 7590, 261–262, 18 February 2016

News in Focus: Young scientists poised to ride the gravitational wave, 530: 7590, 263, 18 February 2016

Seven Days: LIGO-India is go, 530: 7591, 386–387, 25 February 2016

News in Focus: Successful test drive for space-based gravitational-wave detector, 531: 7592, 30, 3 March 2016

News & Views: Dawn of a new astronomy, 531: 7592, 40–42, 3 March 2016

News in Focus: Chinese gravitational-wave hunt hits crunch time, 531: 7593, 150–151, 10 March 2016

Editorials: Siren call, 531: 7595, 413–414, 24 March 2016

Seven Days: China hunts waves, 531: 7595, 418–419, 24 March 2016

Features: The black-hole collision that reshaped physics, 531: 7595, 428–431, 24 March 2016

Research Highlights: Black-hole crackle-and-pop, 532: 7597, 8–9, 7 April 2016

Spring Books: Soundtrack of the Universe, 532: 7597, 28–29, 7 April 2016

Seven Days: Green light, 532: 7599, 286–287, 21 April 2016

News in Focus: Space-time mission draws global interest, 533: 7601, 18–19, 5 May 2016

Seven Days: Millions for LIGO, 533: 7602, 150–151, 12 May 2016

News & Views: Fresh solutions to the four-body problem, 533: 7602, 187–188, 12 May 2016

Seven Days: Cosmic funding, 533: 7603, 296–297, 19 May 2016

Research Highlights: Relativity passes black-hole test, 534: 7606, 154-155, 9 June 2016

Seven Days: Kavli Prize, 534: 7606, 156–157, 9 June 2016

Seven Days: Pure gravity, 534: 7606, 156–157, 9 June 2016

Seven Days: Scottish adviser, 534: 7607, 300–301, 16 June 2016

Seven Days: LIGO strikes again, 534: 7607, 300–301, 16 June 2016

News in Focus: LIGO detects whispers of another black-hole merger, 534: 7608, 448–449, 23 June 2016

News & Views: Recipe for a black-hole merger, 534: 7608, 478–479, 23 June 2016

Letters: The first gravitational-wave source from the isolated evolution of two stars in the 40-100 solar mass range, 534: 7608, 512–515, 23 June 2016  黑洞合并检测的一个路线图:Krzysztof Belczynski 等人发表了对双黑洞的形成所做的数值模拟,其模拟为解读最近检测到的第一个引力波源(被称为GW150914,由两个大质量黑洞合并而成)提供了一个框架。他们的模型显示,这些事件是在一个金属性不到太阳10%的环境中发生的,其前体是初始质量为40-100个太阳质量、通过质量转移和一个 common-envelope相”相互作用的恒星。根据他们的计算预测,一旦引力波观测装置达到其最大灵敏度,那么每年将会检测到大约1000个黑洞合并事件。

Research Highlights: No neutrinos from black hole smash, 535: 7610, 10, 7 July 2016

Coming Up: Physicists discuss LIGO's gravitational-wave detection, 535: 7613, 470-471, 28 July 2016

News in Focus: Artificial black hole creates its own version of Hawking radiation, 536: 7616, 258–259, 18 August 2016

Research Highlights: Galaxy collisions make waves fast, 537: 7620, 283, 15 September 2016

Seven Days: NASA and eLISA, 537: 7620, 284–285, 15 September 2016

Seven Days: LIGO in India, 538: 7624, 144–145, 13 October 2016

Seven Days: LIGO restart, 539: 7629, 334–335, 17 November 2016

Seven Days: Black-hole puzzle nets $3-million prize, 540: 7632, 174–175, 8 December 2016

Seven Days: LIGO goes again, 540: 7632, 174–175, 8 December 2016

366 Days: 2016 in Review: Catching a wave, 540: 7634, 496–499, 22 December 2016

Feature: Ten people who mattered this year: Gabriela Gonzalez: gravity spy, 540: 7634, 507–515, 22 December 2016

2016 Editors' Choice: Dawn of a new astronomy, 540: 7634, 536–537, 22 December 2016

时空结构

Coming Up: The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics hosts a meeting on advances in string theory and gauge theory, 531: 7595, 418–419, 24 March 2016

Summer books: At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self- Organization and Complexity, 535: 7611, 228–2305, 14 July 2016

Books and Arts: Finding the time, 537: 7622, 616, 29 September 2016

Autumn Books: Windows on the weird, 538: 7623, 32–33, 6 October 2016

Autumn Books: The emperor's new physics, 538: 7623, 34–40, 6 October 2016

New in paperback: Spooky Action at a Distance, 538: 7623, 34–40, 6 October 2016

时间计量

News & Views: Elusive transition spotted in thorium, 533: 7601, 44–45, 5 May 2016

Articles: Direct detection of the 229Th nuclear clock transition, 533: 7601, 47–51, 5 May 2016 核时钟时代将到来? 原子(根据原子跃迁测定时间)准确性是GPS导航和射电天文学等多种不同系统之功能的核心。理论上,基于核跃迁之光激发的核时钟在稳定性和紧凑性上可以比原子钟更好。然而,激发能(excitation energy)低到足以使这种应用成为可能的惟一核状态是钍-229的第一激发态。但这在整个核领域都可以说是最奇异的跃迁,并且已被证明极难检测。以前只可能获得某种间接证据。在这项研究中,基于 “低能微通道板检测”,Lars von der Wense及同事实现了对钍-229核时钟跃迁的直接检测,为跃迁能施加了新的极限,测出了该状态的半衰期。除了朝实现核时钟的方向迈出了一步外,这些结果还表明,基于这一跃迁的核量子光学系统和核激光器可能也是有可行性的。

Research Highlights: Precise clocks synced by lasers, 533: 7604, 440, 26 May 2016

Coming Up: Astrophysicists and science historians ponder the Science of Time, 534: 7605, 10–11, 2 June 2016

粒子物理学

Seven Days: Tetraquark addition, 531: 7592, 12–13, 3 March 2016

Editorials: Who ordered that? 531: 7593, 139–140, 10 March 2016

Seven Days: Japanese collider, 531: 7593, 144–145, 10 March 2016

Seven Days: Particle promise, 531: 7595, 418–419, 24 March 2016

Seven Days: Asymmetry pegged, 531: 7596, 554-555, 31 March 2016

New in Paperback: Most Wanted Particle, 532: 7597, 30–36, 7 April 2016

Research Highlights: Theories abound for new particle, 532: 7599, 284–285, 21 April 2016

Seven Days: Marten shuts LHC, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

News & Views: A deliberate mix-up in flavour, 533: 7603, 327–328, 19 May 2016

Review: Searching for the rules that govern hadron construction, 534: 7608, 487–493, 23 June 2016  强子的构造:量子色动力学(QCD)描述夸克怎样聚集在一起形成强子。最常见的强子是重子,如质子和中(它们由三个夸克组成)及介子(它由一个夸克-反夸克对组成)。但原则上,QCD允许存在的构造要奇异得多:由更多夸克组成的粒子或由胶(强作用力的载体)夸克组成的粒子。虽然这种奇异状态的例子最近已被发现,但实验结果和来自 “格点QCD 的高准确度理论预测并未产生一个能够据其从QCD推导出强子构造规则的清晰模式。这篇Review文章讨论最近在寻找决定强子构造的规则过程中所获得的实验和理论结果,作者就这一领域当前和未来的研究工作表达了他们的观点。

Seven Days: Helen Edwards dies, 534: 7609, 594–595, 30 June 2016

Obituary: Thomas Kibble, 534: 7609, 622, 30 June 2016

Seven Days: Romania joins CERN, 535: 7612, 328–329, 21 July 2016

Editorial: CERN’s road bump, 536: 7615, 125, 11 August 2016

Research Highlights: No sign of new neutrino, 536: 7615, 128–129, 11 August 2016

News in Focus: LHC particle hopes dashed, 536: 7615, 133–134, 11 August 2016

Research Highlights: Proton-size puzzle deepens, 536: 7616, 253, 18 August 2016

News in Focus: Morphing neutrinos provide clue to antimatter mystery, 536: 7616, 261–262, 18 August 2016

Research Highlights: Neutrino search closes in, 536: 7617, 376–377, 25 August 2016

News in Focus: China, Japan, CERN: Who will host the next LHC? 536: 7617, 383–384, 25 August 2016

Research Highlights: Exotic pentaquark confirmed, 537: 7618, 10–11, 1 September 2016

Seven Days: Physicist dies, 537: 7618, 12–13, 1 September 2016

Research Highlights: Two mesons make an exotic atom, 537: 7621, 452, 22 September 2016

Obituary: James Cronin, 537: 7621, 489, 22 September 2016

News & Views: Search for neutrinoless double-β decay, 538: 7623, 48–49, 6 October 2016

Seven Days: Weighing neutrinos, 538: 7624, 294-295, 20 October 2016

Research Highlights: Cosmic rays make more muons, 539: 7628, 143, 10 November 2016

Seven Days: New element names, 540: 7632, 174–175, 8 December 2016

航天

Seven Days: Philippines satellite, 531: 7596, 554-555, 31 March 2016

Seven Days: Science in space, 532: 7597, 10–11, 7 April 2016

Spring Books: The women who launched NASA, 532: 7597, 34–35, 7 April 2016

Seven Days: China satellite lab, 532, 7598, 152, 14 April 2016

Seven Days: NASA science chief, 532, 7598, 152, 14 April 2016

Seven Days: Spaceport debut, 533: 7601, 12–13, 5 May 2016

News in Focus: Software error doomed Japanese Hitomi spacecraft, 533: 7601, 18–19, 5 May 2016

Coming Up: The 13th and 14th satellites of Europe's Galileo navigation system are due to launch, 533: 7603, 296–297, 19 May 2016

Seven Days: India space shuttle, 533: 7604, 442–443, 26 May 2016

Seven Days: Space inflation, 534: 7605, 10–11, 2 June 2016

News in Focus: Tiny ‘chipsat’ spacecraft set for first flight, 534: 7605, 15–16, 2 June 2016

Seven Days: Space-station crew comes home, 534: 7608, 440–441, 23 June 2016

Seven Days: JAXA pay cuts, 534: 7608, 440–441, 23 June 2016

Seven Days: Space fire, 534: 7608, 440–441, 23 June 2016

Seven Days: India space record, 534: 7609, 594–595, 30 June 2016

Seven Days: Chinese rocket, 534: 7609, 594–595, 30 June 2016

Seven Days: NASA travel ban, 534: 7609, 594–595, 30 June 2016

News in Focus: CubeSats set for deep space — if they can hitch a ride, 535: 7610, 19–20, 7 July 2016

Seven Days: Indian space case, 536: 7614, 10–11, 4 August 2016

News in Focus: Troubled Japanese space agency seeks fresh start, 536: 7614, 13–14, 4 August 2016

Seven Days: Quantum satellite, 536: 7616, 254–255, 18 August 2016

Seven Days: US space projects, 536: 7616, 254–255, 18 August 2016

News in Focus: Grading America's ‘scientist-in-chief’: Space Race Stalls, 536: 7617, 385–386, 25 August 2016

Seven Days: Chinese space lab, 537: 7621, 455-455, 22 September 2016

Coming Up: China launches the next-generation Long March 5 rocket, 539: 7627, 10–11, 3 November 2016

Seven Days: Heavy lifter, 539: 7628, 144–145, 10 November 2016

Coming Up: Astronauts head to the International Space Station aboard a Russian Soyuz craft, 539: 7628, 144–145, 10 November 2016

Seven Days: Space debris, 539: 7629, 334–335, 17 November 2016

Coming Up: Europe's next four Galileo navigation satellites are scheduled to launch, 539: 7629, 334–335, 17 November 2016

Seven Days: Quadruple launch, 539: 7630, 472–473, 24 November 2016

Correspondence: Trump: threats to space science? 539: 7630, 495, 24 November 2016

Coming Up: SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket returns to flight, 540: 7632, 174–175, 8 December 2016

机构和仪器

Coming Up: Astro-H, an X-ray astronomy satellite led by the Japanese Space Agency, will launch, 530: 7589, 134–135, 11 February 2016

News in Focus: High stakes as Japanese space observatory prepares for launch, 530: 7589, 140–141, 11 February 2015

Seven Days: Space panorama, 530: 7591, 386–387, 25 February 2016

Coming Up: NASA invites the astrophysics community to discuss the science that can be done with the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, 530: 7591, 386–387, 25 February 2016

Seven Days: Space silence, 531: 7596, 554-555, 31 March 2016

Seven Days: Solo observatories, 531: 7596, 554-555, 31 March 2016

Coming Up: The Thirty Meter Telescope Science Forum gathers, 533: 7603, 296–297, 19 May 2016

Comment: Invest in neutrino astronomy, 533: 7604, 462–464, 26 May 2016

Editorials: Seeing farther, 534: 7605, 6, 2 June 2016

Seven Days: Telescope record, 534: 7605, 10–11, 2 June 2016

Books and Arts: Cosmic detectives, 534: 7605, 34–35, 2 June 2016

News in Focus: Giant SKA telescope rattles South African community, 534: 7608, 444–446, 23 June 2016

Seven Days: Inclusive astronomy, 536: 7614, 10–11, 4 August 2016

Seven Days: Cosmic upgrade, 537: 7621, 454-455, 22 September 2016

Seven Days: Chinese telescope, 537: 7622, 590–591, 29 September 2016

News in Focus: Daring Chinese telescope is poised to transform astronomy, 537: 7622, 593–594, 29 September 2016

Seven Days: Telescope time bias, 538: 7624, 144–145, 13 October 2016

News in Focus: Arecibo Observatory hit with discrimination lawsuit, 538: 7624, 297-298, 20 October 2016

Seven Days: Telescope setback, 540: 7634, 488–489, 22 December 2016

366 Days: 2016 in Review: To boldly go, 540: 7634, 496–499, 22 December 2016

星空

Seven Days: Brighter nights for Earth, 534: 7607, 300–301, 16 June 2016

人物

Books in brief: Margherita Sarrocchi's Letters to Galileo, 535: 7612, 353, 21 July 2016

Books in brief: Einstein's Greatest Mistake: The Life of a Flawed Genius, 537: 7621, 485, 22 September 2016

Books and Arts: History: Einstein the statesman, 538: 7624, 170, 13 October 2016

  评论这张
 
阅读(562)| 评论(2)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017